APA format

Hire our professional essay experts at Gradehunters.net who are available online 24/7 for an essay paper written to a high standard at an affordable cost.

Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

APA Style

Socioeconomic Factors in Relationship with African-American Childhood Development:

Literature Review

William Powell


Foundations of Doctoral Studies in Education


The Impact of Socioeconomic Factors on African-American Early Childhood Development: A Literature Review

The socioeconomic status (SES) of people and families in your community refers to their financial and social standing. Who is your caregiver determines your socioeconomic level in early infancy. The socioeconomic level of the caregiver may have a significant influence on early childhood development. SES has an influence on a child’s worldview, when and what they are able to eat, health care, and the types of early childhood educational programs accessible. The research topic for this literature review is: What impact does African American children’s low socioeconomic position have on their early childhood educational development and academic achievement as measured by standardized assessments? Understanding how these two are related will raise community awareness and future educator awareness. This review will look at socioeconomic issues including poverty, low-income pupils, and parental participation, among others.

Academic Achievement

The educational achievement of a child is a critical factor of long-term success and general well-being (Hahn, Barnett, Knopf, Truman, Johnson, Fielding, Muntaner, Jones, Fullilove & Hunt, 2013). As a kid grows older, a lack of sufficient high-quality education and early childhood learning opportunities might have an impact on his or her health and well-being. In their journal article Early Childhood Education to Promote Health Equality: A Community Guide Systematic Review (Hahn et al, 2016), Hahn et al investigated whether providing early childhood education to ethnic minorities could help them achieve not only better long-term academic success, but also the public health goal of health equality, Children from low-income or racially and ethnically diverse families.


Families with children under the age of three are more likely to face developmental delays, and may benefit from early childhood education (Hahn et al, 2016). The assessment of data revealed considerable evidence that center-based early childhood education programs benefit low-income and minority children’s scholastic and health outcomes (Hahn et al, 2013).

Children’s sociodemographic variables and how they relate to academic achievement must also be taken into account, since this might influence the kind of educational facilities accessible to them. Early childhood education should be a level playing field for all students, with equal opportunity for all children, particularly in places where poverty is greater. The main focus of the No Child Left behind Act (NCLB) is too close to student achievement gaps by providing far, equal, and significant opportunities to obtain a high-quality education (Saultz & Saultz, 2017). It is critical to provide students from low-SES households with the same opportunity to obtain quality foundational skills and education as those from higher-SES households. When it comes to state standardized testing, African American students in the United States start school half a standard deviation behind their Caucasian counterparts (Smith, McKendall, Chester, Hornbeck & McKendall, 2018). While standardized tests demonstrate that lower-income African American pupils do worse, it is unclear if parental participation in these lower-income households has a beneficial influence on the students’ capacity to acquire a quality education that will help them attain academic success.

Academic Success and Parental Involvement

The family’s socioeconomic status has a significant impact on a student’s academic performance and success. Other variables, including as parental education, genetic variances, school quality, and the environment, may influence school accomplishment in addition to SES indicators.


In which the kid dwells while each aspect has the potential to influence a student’s development, there is a clear correlation between the student’s surroundings and parental actions. Although low-income parents may not perceive the value in acquiring equitable early childhood education, their actions may result in a child’s overall educational attainment. Children raised by parents with a higher education may be more aware of the value and provide greater assistance to their children (Assari, Mardani, Maleki, Boyce, & Bazargan, 2021). Perez-Brena, Rivas-Drake, Toomey, and Umaa-Taylor (2018) utilized the integrative model to investigate whether there are racial variations in child development and to herald a significant change in understanding the normative development of minority children. The integrated approach looks at the impact of a student’s home environment, community, and school on their experiences in these environments. According to the integrated model, a student’s socioeconomic status and intolerance may have an influence on their home and school characteristics, putting African American students at a disadvantage. These home and school variables may then influence the proximal adult-child interactions, which can affect the student’s performance, resulting in lower levels of accomplishment and acquisition skills in school (Perez-Brena et al, 2018).

According to research, parental participation in early childhood learning as well as parental involvement in school has a significant role in their child’s academic achievement. Parental and family involvement with a kid in early infancy and throughout their school years is intimately connected to the child’s development of social skills and academic performance (McWayne, Melzi, Limlingan & Schick 2016). Parental engagement may be seen of as a multi-dimensional construct that incorporates a broad variety of parental activities, both at home and at school, that can assist their children’ learning both directly and indirectly.


Overall academic success Parents who connect closely with their child’s school have pupils who are more socially competent and academically successful than students whose parents have less school involvement (McWayne et al, 2016). Parental participation and parent-child interactions are critical for the development of children, particularly young children. Because the parent spends a considerable deal of their time outsourcing services and providing a safe environment for their kid in households with a lower SES, there may be greater restrictions placed on parent-child interactions. These obstacles hinder parents’ ability to give early educational foundation skills to their children (McWayne et al, 2016).

Other Factors Affecting Academic Success and Development

Despite the fact that SES indicators and parental participation have a significant impact on student academic attainment, current research suggests that African American inequities persist even in high-SES homes. This shows that, at least in part, the performance difference between African Americans and white pupils is due to lower SES returns rather than a lack of access to SES resources (Assari, Boyce, Caldwell & Bazargan, 2020). MDRs (Minorities’ Diminished Returns) stand for “less than anticipated.” According to MDRs, even if two racial groups are similar in terms of SES or other differences, the minority in the group might be considered inferior (Assari, Boyce, Caldwell & Bazargan, 2020).

Students and their parents are more likely to live in low-income areas with poor-quality schools in lower-SES families. These schools have preconceived notions about the sorts of students and education they can deliver, resulting in reduced expectations for student achievement (Assari et al, 2020). There is evidence to support the value of teacher-student interactions and how they affect a student’s academic performance, Teachers who can recognize a student as a child who wants to learn and isn’t intimidated by their situation.


Ethnic-racial, or those of lower socioeconomic position, will be able to offer the kid with the necessary resources and time to assess the child’s academic ability, which will have a direct impact on helping to close the achievement gap. If the teachers in these lower-income neighborhoods do not invest in the students because of a reputation and a lack of expectations, the students will not perform as well as students in other areas, resulting in a lack of teacher-student relationships, which can negatively impact the student and their success (Assari et al, 2020).

Social Justice

The racial-ethnic achievement divide, as it pertains to this evaluation of data, was created by two main social processes: signal effects and direct influences. These two processes are linked to growth, implying that the effect and context might change with age. Direct impacts would focus around the social environment of the student and would improve academic progress for young people who are members of a minority group. In a school context, both the quality of the instructor and the school may have a direct impact on the student, assisting in improved academic achievement. For the pupil, signal influences function as a stereotype. If pupils feel inferior as a consequence of how they are treated as a result of the environment they live in or the school they attend, it may lead to decreased academic accomplishment.


Research has revealed that success differences for minority children may be linked to not just early childhood development but also other aspects that the student may not be able to control, such as SES and environment, according to the material analyzed. It is critical to provide early childhood education to pupils from lower-income families in order to close the achievement gap. Although parental participation and good instructors play an essential role in academic performance, they are not the only factors. This literature study has shown the significance and need of


For their overall success, all kids, regardless of their socioeconomic status, should be able to enjoy high-quality early childhood learning experiences.



S. Assari, S. Boyce, C. H. Caldwell, and M. Bazargan (2020). Parental Educational Achievement and the Achievement Gap between Black and White Adolescents: Blacks’ Diminished Returns 8(3), 282–297 in Open Journal of Social Sciences. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2020.83026 S. Assari, A. Mardani, M. Maleki, S. Boyce, and M. Bazargan. Assari, A. Mardani, A. Mardani, A. Mardani, A. Mardani, A. Mardani, A. Mardani, A. Mardani (2021). The Role of Race, School Urbanity, and Parental Education in the Black-White Achievement Gap 1–11 in Pediatric Health, Medicine, and Therapeutics. https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S238877 R. A. Hahn, W. S. Barnett, J. A. Knopf, B. I. Truman, R. L. Johnson, J. E. Fielding, C. Muntaner, C. P. Jones, M. T. Fullilove, P. C. Hunt, R. A. Hahn, W. S. Barnett, J. A. Knopf, B. I. Truman, R. L. Johnson, R. L. Johnson, R (2016). A Community Guide Systematic Review of Early Childhood Education to Promote Health Equity. JPHMP,22(5),E1–E8. Journal of public health management and practice. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000000378 C. M. McWayne, G. Melzi, M. C. Limlingan, and A. Schick (2016). Low-income Latino households with preschool children have different ecocultural patterns of family participation. 1088–1102 in Developmental Psychology, 52(7). https://doi.org/10.1037/a0040343 N. J. Perez-Brena, D. Rivas-Drake, R. B. Toomey, and A. J.

Umaa-Taylor (2018). What have we learnt about adaptive culture from the integrated model’s contributions to the study of developmental competence in minority children? 713–726 in American Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000292 A. Saultz and J. W. Saultz (2017).



Lessons from the World of Public Education on Measuring Outcomes 71–76 in Annals of Family Medicine, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1995


Everyone needs a little help with academic work from time to time. Hire the best essay writing professionals working for us today!

Get a 15% discount for your first order

Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper