applying motivational theories

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Need Discussion Postings to 2 discussion topics

“All human motivation is a search for change.” –David L. Forbes

Throughout this course, you have explored many different perspectives on human motivation and the distinct (yet interrelated) facets that comprise it. An underlying thread held in common by all motivational theories is that motivation is a factor in human change of all types. This week, you look at change broadly by exploring such questions as: Does change occur by chance or design? Do needs, environment, external pressure, or internal pressure influence change the most? Is motivation necessary for change, or does change merely enhance motivation?

In addition to exploring the relationship between motivation and change, you should also continue working on your social change paper, which is due in Week 11.

Reference: Forbes, D. L. (2011). Toward a unified model of human motivation. Review of General Psychology, 15(2), 85–98.

  • Book Excerpt: McCombs, B. L., & Pope, J. E. (1994). Goal one: Understanding the nature of motivation. In B. L. McCombs, & J. E. Pope (Eds.), Motivating hard to reach students (pp. 9–25). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the PsycBOOKS database.
  • Article: American Psychological Association (APA). (2011). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct.[Online guide]
    Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
  • Article: Barron, K. E., & Hulleman, C. S. (2007). Is there a formula to help understand and improve student motivation? [Online article]
    Retrieved from: http://teachpsych.org/Resources/Documents/ebooks/eit2006.pdf
  • Article: Forbes, D. L. (2011). Toward a unified model of human motivation. Review of General Psychology, 15(2), 85–98.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the PsycARTICLES database.
  • Article: George, M. (2010). Ethics and motivation in remedial mathematics education. Community College Review, 38(1), 82–92.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Olive, E. (2010). Behavior management and behavioral change: How can we tell them apart? Reclaiming Children & Youth, 19(1), 3–6.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the ERIC database.
  • Article: Sniehotta, F. F. (2009). Towards a theory of intentional behaviour change: Plans, planning, and self-regulation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2),261–273.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Turner, J. C., & Patrick, H. (2008). How does motivation develop and why does it change? Reframing motivation research. Educational Psychologist, 43(3), 119–131.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Valdman, M. (2010). On the morality of Guinea-pig recruitment. Bioethics, 24(6), 287–294.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Velicer, W. F., & Prochaska, J. O. (2008). Stage and non-stage theories of behavior and behavior change: a comment on Schwarzer. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57(1), 75–83.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.

Discussion 1: The Relationship Between Motivation and Change

Change comes in many forms: behavioral, cognitive, environmental, and societal, just to name a few. Likewise, motivation relates to many different outcomes, such as belonging, achievement, security, and esteem, among others. Change and motivation are interrelated and mutually-determined. For instance, if you wanted to impact change within a group, you would need to evaluate the motivation of that group and its members. In this way, you would be able to identify whether the motivation is strong, sustainable, personal, or influenced primarily by group belonging. The group’s motivation impacts the possibility that change can occur, and the desired change may determine the level or type of motivation.

To prepare for this Discussion, think of examples that illustrate how motivation and change are related. Consider how you would explain this relationship.

Post by Day 3 an example that illustrates how motivation and change are interrelated and mutually-determined. Explain how they are related in your example. Then, explain what the outcome of this situation might be if there was no motivation.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

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Discussion 2: Ethics and Motivation

Standard 8.02 of the APA Code of Ethics states that psychologists must inform research participants about “1) the purpose of the research, expected duration, and procedures; 2) their right to decline to participate and to withdraw from the research once participation has begun; 3) the foreseeable consequences of declining or withdrawing; 4) reasonably foreseeable factors that may be expected to influence their willingness to participate such as potential risks, discomfort, or adverse effects; 5) any prospective research benefits; 6) limits of confidentiality; 7) incentives for participation; and 8) whom to contact for questions about the research and research participants’ rights” (APA, 2010).

Consider item number 7 from the above list, “incentives for participation.” Giving course credit to psychological research participants is ethical, but is it ethical to base students’ grades on whether they participate in the research? This is but one example of the relationship between ethics and motivation. As you begin this Discussion, think of other ways that ethics and motivation intersect, particularly in educational settings or other learning environments.

Reference: American Psychological Association (APA). (2011). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

Post by Day 4 an explanation of three ways in which ethics and motivation intersect and provide examples. Support your response with references to the literature and the APA Code of Ethics.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

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