Article Critique: Chi-Square Test
The readings for this week focus on the concepts of z tests, t tests, and Chi-Square tests. In this discussion we will apply those concepts to the review and critique of a research article. For information on how to critique a research article, see the Coughlan et al. (2007) and UIS (n.d.) guides listed in the Required Readings for this week.
Read the following article:
- Apostolou, M. (2010). Parental choice: What parents want in a son-in-law and a daughter-in-law across 67 pre-industrial societies. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 695-704. doi: 10.1348/000712609X480634
In the body of your posting, include an overview of the following topics:
- Research question – State the research question for the study.
- Hypotheses – Provide written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses for the study.
- Methods and Study Design – Describe the basic methods used, including the variables, sampling methods, data collection, etc.
- Data Analysis – Summarize the statistical tests conducted, the results obtained from each test, and conclusions regarding the hypotheses.
- Critique – Critique the results of the study, paying specific attention to the appropriateness of the analyses conducted, any biases or assumptions that were made, practical significance of the results, and recommendations for improving upon the study (methods or analyses).
- Summary – Provide a brief summary of the study’s findings in 2-3 sentences. Do not use any numbers or statistical terms, but provide a review that would make sense to someone who has not studied research methods or statistics.
Be sure to put information in your own words and cite accordingly. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings.
Point Value: 4 Points (200-WORDS)
Article Critique: Chi-Square TestThe readings for this week focus on the concepts of z tests, t tests, and Chi-Square tests. In this discussion we will apply those concepts to the review and critique
Forum Assignment for the Week: 250 Words minimum For this week’s Forum, respond to the following: This forum is designed to engage us in a discussion involving a comparison between Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership Practices and Senge’s Five disciplines . Support your assertions with scholarly source material. Examine the document showing the table of comparisons and answer the following: 1. In what ways are the two sources suggestive of similar theoretical concepts and/or presentation? 2. How are they different? 3. What are your conclusions about the thinking of these leadership scholars as expressed in the table and with regard to additional sources you may elect to include in your discussion. ***Your post must also end with a “Question to the Class” – something related to the topic that you found thought-provoking and about which you’d like to know more and have further dialog. *** No sources or citations required General Instructions Applicable to All Forums: To receive 100% as a grade (the exemplary level) for the weekly forums, you should ensure that your responses meet the following criterion: Critical Analysis – Discussion postings display an excellent understanding of the required readings and underlying concepts including correct use of terminology. Postings are made in time for others to read and respond as well as deliver information that is full of thought, insight, and analysis. The information presented makes connection to previous or current content or to real-life situations, and must contain rich and fully developed new ideas, connections, or applications. (It is important that you integrate the weekly readings in your response. One way to do that is to make position statements, then discuss supporting evidence (i.e. research and/or personal experience). Professional Communication and Etiquette – Written interactions in the Forum show respect and sensitivity to peers’ background and beliefs (Regardless of the position you are taking, please ensure that your participation comments are respectful to your peers’ background and beliefs). Writing Skills – Written responses are free of grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. The style of writing facilitates communication. (Make sure your work is free of errors. If there are any errors as outlined above, you will not receive 100% for the forum). This week’s lecture notes cover three main topics: Values Leadership credibility and self-awareness Set the example Values Most organizations have core values, and all employees are expected to uphold these values. Leaders must remind all the basic principles and values upon which the organization was founded. Core values are the foundation of an organization, and they rarely change. It is a leader’s inherent responsibility to unite their followers with a corporate vision, core values, and measurable goals to harness their unconditional support. A leader must set clear and fundamental values that move their followers. Per Kouzes and Posner (2007), “values serve as guides to action, values are empowering, and values motivate” (p.53). An organization without values, standards, mission, vision or goals is like a tree without roots. These components are vital to organizational survival, growth, and prosperity. More important, an organization without values and standards at the core of their existence will ultimately achieve the self-fulfilling prophecy of organizational quagmire, discontentment, and a decrease in productivity. Bennis (2003) stated that leadership without values, commitment, and conviction could only be inhumane and harmful. Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002) described a dissonance organization as when people show up for work in body only, day after day, but they leave their hearts and souls elsewhere. Values, standards, and goals are what drive the organization and its people. Kouzes and Posner stated, “shared values make a significant positive difference in work attitudes and performance” (p. 63). Effective leaders understand that the organization and its people are inseparable. People are the strategic link, intellectual property, and heartbeat of the organization. They develop and execute critical processes, protocols, and procedures to propel the organization to the next dimension of excellence and greatness. Values, standards, and goals are what drive an organization and their people to achieve greatness, today and tomorrow. Leadership credibility and self-awareness Credibility is crucial to be an effective leader and it demonstrates strong character. “Credibility is the foundation of leadership” (Kouzes & Posner, 2007, p.37). Many leadership experts believe that you can’t lead without credibility. The people must respect and trust their leader to willingly follow. To gain respect and trust from others, you must first respect and trust yourself. A leadership assessment is useful to determine the level of respect and trust the people have in their leader. However, you must be objective and open to feedback. You must learn to control your emotions when soliciting feedback from others. Authentic leadership assessments generate a vision, growth, and improvement. Time spent conducting self-assessments can add major dividends to an organization’s success. Leadership assessments can provide insight to leaders on how others perceive their performance and overall leadership abilities. How you see yourself and how others see you as a leader can be different. An assessment that provides immediate feedback to the leader is a good method to use to manage or avoid negative perceptions and implement change. Kouzes and Posner discussed an assessment method called “Do a personal audit,” which is done by recording your actions or have the audit done by others. Regardless of the assessment method or tool used, it is imperative that it is authentic, effective, and used consistently to achieve greatness within yourself and your organization. Feedback from others can positively identify leaders’ strengths and areas that could be improved or further developed. The feedback assessment process can increase self-awareness and it is extremely important to know yourself to become a better leader. Goleman et al. (2002) described self-awareness as one of the dimensions of an emotional intelligence leader. They defined self-awareness as having a deep understanding of your emotions, strengths, limitations, values, and motives. Further, they stated that self-aware leaders are realistic and they understand their values, goals, and dreams. Lack of self-awareness can affect a leader’s decision making, credibility, and vision. Leadership assessments open the pathway for opportunities to achieve greatness. Leaders should not be intimidated or afraid of feedback, instead, embrace it, learn from it, and grow into the leader you were meant to be. Set the example A leader’s affluence and example ratified in the hearts and minds of followers validate true leadership. Leadership by example is one of the best ways to influence others to follow. Followers must buy into the leader before they truly buy into the vision. Leadership by example can never be taken for granted and should be assessed daily. Leadership by example is the blueprint for excellence. A leader must be a positive role model and set the example in all things always. The model you set will be the blueprint you craft for others to follow. As a leader, you must know yourself, know your job inside and out, know your followers, know your organization, and then seek to expand your boundaries. Kouzes and Posner (2007) identifies “modeling the way” as one of the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership. They stated that exemplary leaders must be models of the behavior expected of others to gain commitment to excellence. Leaders are transparent and people assess them by the congruence of what they say and do. Leaders define the value of their example by what they repeatedly do. Therefore, when demonstrating leadership by example, leaders’ audio and video must be consistent. Followers are always vigilantly watching their leaders’ actions to see if they are congruent with their verbal messages. “Setting the example is all about execution” (Kouzes and Posner, p. 75). Leaders’ actions are the key factor for the success of any organization. Therefore, leaders must serve as positive role models and consistently demonstrate the highest moral standards of conduct and professionalism regardless of the situation. Leaders are always on display for the world to see. References Bennis, W. (2003). On becoming a leader. New York: Perseus Publishing. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Kouzes, J. M. & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The leadership challenge (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Readings: Allen, M., Carpenter, C., Dydak, T., & Harkins, K. (2016). An interpersonal project leadership model. Journal of Information Technology and Economic Development, 7(2), 24-39. Caldwell, C., Dixon, R. D., Floyd, L. A., Chaudoin, J., Post, J., & Cheokas, G. (2012). Transformative leadership: Achieving unparalleled excellence. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(2), 175-187 Garg, S., & Jain, S. (2013). Mapping leadership styles of public and private sector leaders using Blake and Mouton leadership model. Drishtikon : A Management Journal, 4(1), 48-64. Mendez, M. J., Howell, J. P., & Bishop, J. W. (2015). Beyond the unidimensional collective leadership model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36(6), 675-696. Segon, M., & Booth, C. (2015). Virtue: The missing ethics element in emotional intelligence. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(4), 789-802. Seemiller, C., & Murray, T. (2013). The Common Language of Leadership. Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(1), 33-45. Xu, F., Caldwell, C., Glasper, K., & Guevara, L. (2015). Leadership roles and transformative duties – preliminary research. The Journal of Management Development, 34(9), 1061-1072. The purpose of this paper is to present empirical evidence about the roles of leaders and how those roles mesh with transformative leadership as a new theory of ethical stewardship. References Dr. Woody. (2011, March 7). Why personality matters in the workplace [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.foxbusiness.com/personal-finance/2011/03/07/personality-matters/ 5
Article Critique: Chi-Square TestThe readings for this week focus on the concepts of z tests, t tests, and Chi-Square tests. In this discussion we will apply those concepts to the review and critique
Original Question: For this week’s Forum, respond to the following 1. Write a one-two sentence personal definition of leadership. Base you definition on what you have encountered this week, as well as on what you have already learned about leadership. 2. Discuss the statements: “Leadership is everybody’s business” and “Leadership is not an affair of the head, but rather an affair of the heart.” 3. Finally, write about the differences between leadership and management. This forum is reflective (No citations/references required). First person is acceptable. Reply to the following response with *** 150 words minimum, including direct questions to the post ***. (please make response as if having a conversation, respond directly to some of the statements in below post. This is not providing an analysis of the original post. Respectfully address it and even ask clarifying or additional questions.) ** These responses are to be informative and contribute to advancing the knowledge of the topic **. 1. My personal definition of leadership is an individual or individuals that have the ability to inspire others to see their vision; in addition to who is able to bring out the best attributes of those who follow so the objective can be achieved. This week’s lesson also points out how it is important for leaders to be trustworthy and gain the trust of those who will chose to follow. Leaders that are able to listen, engage, and encourage their followers, gain their followers trust and the creditability needed to implement change within the organization (Winston & Patterson, 2006). The statement of “Leadership is everybody’s business” takes into account that those responsible to lead within organizations need to instill in employees how valuable they are in creating the change the organization needs. In doing so, employees achieve a raised level of self-efficacy which increases the employee’s productivity (Blomme, Kodden, & Beasley-Suffolk, 2015). Transformational leaders are very successful in raising the overall morale of organizations by motivating and challenging their employees to become more knowledgeable in their skills and abilities (Odumeru & Ogbonna, 2013). The statement “Leadership is not an affair of the head, but rather an affair of the heart” could be a continuation of the above statement. It is also necessary to add leaders should be genuine and believe in the vision they are inspiring others to stand behind. When leaders are self-aware (Nichols & Erakovich, 2013) and committed to the mission, the team can successfully get results (DuFour, 2004). There are many differences between leadership and management. Overall, leaders are those who create the vision and inspire others to follow. Managers are those who are responsible for gathering the resources, managing the day to day responsibilities, and resolving the short-term challenges that are needed to carry out the vision (Toor, 2011). 2. Leadership is providing effective goal orientated purpose, direction, and motivation to a individual, group or society. This is achieved by individuals that take a personal belief in the goal, provide guidance through example, and place others needs before ones self. In considering the two statements, the first statement relates to not only the leader but also the individuals that are being led. This being said, leaders affect the individuals that are to follow. Meaning, the actions that a leader takes, the principles the leader projects to the audience, and the leaders consideration for the followers play a vital role in how effective the each individual will be towards the common goal. The performance of the audience is a direct reflection of the leadership. The second statement relates to how a leader provides effective leadership. While being a leader takes thought in achieving a goal, the actions of a leader come from the heart of the leader. It is important that the individual leading believes in what he or she is portraying to their audience. In doing so, the audience will see the compassion for what is being portrayed and want to be a part of the process of achieving the desired affect. As described above, a leader provides individuals with the inspiration to achieve a desired goal that is shared by others, which is quite different from what the term “manager “ consists of. A manager provides the followers with organization to achieve a goal. In essence the manager is the position or title, while a leader is the inspiration. This being said, it is suggested that mangers that just assume that followers believe and want to be a part of an organization based on the goals is problematic (Blomme, Kodden, & Beasley-Suffolk, 2015). It is important to note, being a manger does not mean an individual is a good leader. The manager should exercise good leadership skills, which enables a positive atmosphere for followers to be engaged in the overall relationship. Thus, the follower engagement produces an effective environment to achieve said goal. 3. A leader (a coach and mentor), is a person who earns the respect of both coworkers and peers, by standing up for them and what is right. He or she takes the initiative to go that extra mile and helps motivate others to complete the mission. “Leadership is everybody’s business” is a true statement in the fact that everyone has the potential to lead. Does everyone want to do it, no. Some are “comfortable” in their position and do not want to have any more responsibility, especially if involves the actions of others. A person does not have to be in high authority to lead, they can be designated or volunteer to lead due to subject matter experiences or life experiences. Follet (1933) mentions (as stated in Nienaber, 2010), ” Points out that leadership, is a personal quality, which can be exercised by many people, not only top executives. She continues by iterating that the higher the person is in the hierarchy, the more quality is required, especially in terms of the “total situation”(p. 664). “Leadership is not an affair of the head, but rather an affair of the heart,” is a sentence that dives into the foundational characteristic of a leader. When one talks about leaders, the main facts that are usually stated consist of their characteristics and actions that were decided upon or performed. The actions have to do with decisions made from their thought process from the head. But, overall goo leaders do their best to due what is morally right for their employees, themselves, and their business/company/organization. Empathy (putting themselves in other peoples ‘shoes’) comes from the heart and most leaders due not want to see someone fired/laid off or even physically hurt due to a decision that was made. Although, the characteristics and responsibilities of a manager and a leader can overlap, they are ways very different. The manager and leader both use their resources (human and equipment) to get things done, enforce rules and guidelines. The manager is a position, while a leader is a title. A manager is more of the human resource leader and budget specialist (Toor, 2011). While, leader is more of an antagonist, a counselor, a mentor, and a voice for the voiceless. A manager often looks out for the best of the company, rather than the employees. The manager helps to set the budget, decide what customers and products the organization needs to focus on for profit. They often have a say when to fire or layoff employee(s). Basically, they have their nose in all the innerworkings of the company/organization. A manager is often afraid to show people the ropes since he or she is afraid to lose their job. Where as a leader wants others to succeed and gain the knowledge to move up the chain. A leader is invested in figuring out ways to help employees achieve the goals of the company through innovative ways. As an antagonist, a leader will test the waters by going against the norm of the manager to provide a possible safer and more efficient avenue of approach for the end goal. As a counselor, the leader often sees and hears when an employee has a bad day and can do their best to motivate that person to make it through the day and in life. A leader needs to be familiar with the everyday tasks of those he or she leads. They should be one who “gets down in the trenches” when needed to help the team succeed, plus they should provide training on new actions when it is required. They should listen more to their employee’s voice and if the leader thinks the idea is reasonable, bring it up to the manager at the next possible time or meeting (voice of the voiceless). ** Please don’t just rephrase their info, but respond to it. Remember to answer question at the end if there is one. ** 5