Carrie Smithson    2 posts   Re: Topic 7 DQ 2          In order to evaluate an evidence-based project, it is important to be able to determine the effectiveness of your change. In this discussion boar

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Carrie Smithson    2 posts   Re: Topic 7 DQ 2          In order to evaluate an evidence-based project, it is important to be able to determine the effectiveness of your change. In this discussion board, I will discuss one way that I will be able to evaluate whether my project made a difference in practice. The end goal of my project is to decrease admissions to the hospital by providing education on tobacco dependency. Tobacco use causes secondary illnesses such as heart attacks and strokes. Smoking is a major cause of coronary vascular disease and can raise triglycerides, lower HDL cholesterol, make blood sticky and more likely to clot, and cause thickening and narrowing of blood vessels (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Patients that are admitted with an acute diagnosis such as myocardial infarction and stroke, are often educated on risk factors. Some risk factors cannot be changed such as family history, age, and race. Other risk factors can be changed to promote health such as smoking, diet, and exercise. Once the education is provided, nurse managers can audit charts to determine if readmission of the same diagnosis is made. This is one way to evaluate if my project made a difference in practice. Another method to evaluate my project would be through follow up appointments. Every patient that leaves the hospital is made a follow up appointment with their primary care provider. During the follow up visit, the doctor can determine if the teaching performed in the hospital was effective. Success with a tobacco cessation program can decrease health risk tremendously, and that is the goal.  Resource  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Smoking and Heart Disease  and Stroke | Overviews of Diseases/Conditions | Tips From Former  Smokers | CDC. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/diseases/heart-disease-  stroke.html

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Carrie Smithson    2 posts   Re: Topic 7 DQ 2          In order to evaluate an evidence-based project, it is important to be able to determine the effectiveness of your change. In this discussion boar
FPH 7240 – Introduction to Epidemiology Fall 2019 Assignment 2 Due: Thursday, September 12, 2019 at noon Readings: Aschengrau & Seague, Ch. 3 “Comparisons of Disease Frequency” Researchers at Northwestern University followed 4,226 men and 5,624 women for a total of 111,222 person-years to determine whether several risk factors were associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetes was one of the risk factors of interest, and 112 men and 71 women in the study were diabetic at baseline. Of these individuals, 68 diabetic men and 37 diabetic women went on to develop CVD. Throughout follow-up, 43.1% of men and 31.9% of women went on to develop CVD. Based on the information provided, please construct the appropriate 2×2 table of diabetes and CVD risk for men. Please construct the appropriate 2×2 table for diabetes and CVD risk for women. What is the relative risk of CVD associated with diabetes among men? Among women? Relative risk or rate ratio = Incidence exposed / Incidence unexposed Assuming the association between diabetes and CVD is causal, how many cases of CVD (per 100) in women are due to diabetes? What proportion of CVD cases in men could have been prevented if none of the men had diabetes? In the problem above, why might eliminating diabetes in this population have a relatively small impact on CVD risk, even if diabetes is associated with higher incidence of CVD? Again, assuming that the association between diabetes and CVD is causal, which measure of association or excess risk would answer the following question: “Among women who have diabetes and go on to develop CVD, what is the likelihood that CVD was the result of having diabetes?” Please calculate the measure. U.S. Michigan Wayne County Age Group No. of Deaths Population No. of Deaths Population No. of Deaths Population 1-4 765 18,215,012 52 540,813 32 120,545 5-14 1,962 46,753,215 188 1,492,191 94 322,982 15-24 10,201 39,932,482 721 1,218,322 404 472,713 25-44 14,164 83,341,790 777 3,080,575 492 656,168 45-64 8,132 52,210,433 426 3,001,512 217 640,133 35,224 240,452,932 2,164 9,333,413 1,239 2,212,541 The table above presents (fabricated) mortality data due to motor vehicle accidents in Wayne County, the state of Michigan, and the U.S. during 2000. You are asked to examine the motor vehicle accident mortality in Wayne County and Michigan during this period and calculate the following for the above diseases (it is ok to use Excel for your calculations): a) Crude death rates for the U.S., the state of Michigan, and Wayne County: b) Age-specific death rates for the U.S., the state of Michigan, and Wayne County: c) Age-adjust Wayne County and the state of Michigan death rates to the U.S. population (standard): d) Compare the death rates after adjustment. Is there a difference between Wayne County and the state of Michigan?

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