Please respond to each of the 3 classmates “separately” using at least 250 words per response. Answers must be in APA format and include at least one citation for each question response. ***Respond to the classmates only…not the original question.***
Original Question for Classmate one and two:
Kozma et al. present a contemporary mathematical model of human behavior under some environmental constraints. How well does their model fit the human performance data? Is their solution algorithm blind overall to error reduction between input and associated output states or is it based on propagation or another Hebbian learning model?
Classmate 1 Response:
Kozma, Harter, & Achunala (2007) present a measurable model of human behavior and related environmental constraints. This approach focused on exploring human decision making under noise, time, and resource controls. This process was conducted by observing human participants play the classic computer game, Tetris. Kozma et al. (2007) believed that through observing individuals work to carry out tasks with certain limitations, they were able to gain information about how these individuals cope in more extreme conditions.
While very unique their objective and methodology, attentional bias/experience inventory are bias-oriented factors that impact the validity of human performance data. In this instance, participants could potentially modify or manipulate their decision making options to render a certain outcome. For this reason, I believe that a model of propagation closely relates to this study, as participants may have implemented actions based on the familiarity of results accessible to them. Therefore, it can be concluded that while this study offers implications about human decision making, no model can effectively detect information about human behavior 100% of the time, without error.
Kozma, R., Harter, D., & Achunala, S. (2007). Dynamical aspects of behavior generation under constraint. Cognitive Neurodynamics, 1, 213-223. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://www-nc…
Classmate 2 Response:
Kozma, Harter, & Archunala (2007) conducted a study on how participant’s decision making would react under pressure such as noise, time, and resource controls while paying the game Tetris. In conducting this study allowed the authors to observe how the participants would react under different conditions such as time restraints. Kozme et al. (2007) mathematical model approach can predict some instances of human behavior. However, due to environmental factors things can change and using the mathematical model would not predict all situations. Also in decision making not everyone is alike and their decision can be their own (Zhang, Wang, Yang, Ding, Li, & Hu, 2017). In this study, I believe it would best fit the propagation as the participant could decide on the best option of completing the task for Tetris. When the participant decided on a method it could have change the way the game was further played. Even though the player could decide the on how to play the block it could not been predicted in how they would react as again each person is different as well as their actions.
Kozma, R., Harter, D., & Achunala, S. (2007). Dynamical aspects of behavior generation under constraint. Cognitive Neurodynamics, 1(3), 213-223. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://www-nc…
Zhang, Q. H., Wang, R., Yang, J., Ding, K., Li, Y., & Hu, J. -(2017). Collective decision optimization algorithm: A new heuristic optimization method. ScienceDirect, 221, 123- 137. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/sc…
Original Question for Classmate 3:
A person sees a barely visible human as he/she is approaching an isolated ranch house at twilight. How does the nature of declarative memory and the possibility of its use in parallel distributed processing (PDP) regarding formation affect the perception of this complex and potentially threatening scene. How can PDP augment memory in evaluating the potential risk in this and other potentially threatening situations?
Classmate 3 Response:
Declarative memories are those memories (facts or events) that can be consciously recalled, but these are not the only memories that we have. We also have other memories that cannot be recalled but help to shape our feelings, opinions, and innate reactions to situations.
When a person sees a barely visible human as he or she is approaching an isolated ranch house at twilight, there are many different factors from declarative memories to other memories that are simultaneously working together using the parallel distributed processing to understand the situation and to know how to react. This works because there are many factors being processed at once- from whether or not this ranch house is one of happy memories or danger, the body language of the figure, the items the figure may be holding and what memories are attached to those items, whether or not someone should be at the home are just a few. The brain is always processing much more information than would otherwise be known.
In Smolensky et al. (2014) the subject of Gradient Symbol Processing Hypothesis is suggested to say that individuals need two different types of memories in order to make the best informed decisions. This also discusses how to understand the interactions between these memories to form the best decisions. And it should be mentioned that these things happen very quickly, in just a matter of seconds.
Smolensky, P., Goldrick, M., & Mathis, D. (2014). Optimization and quantization in gradient symbol systems: A framework for integrating the continuous and the discrete in cognition. Cognitive Science, 38(6), 1102-1138. doi:10.1111/cogs.12047