Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, and Heisenberg’s later ideas considering uncertainty, led to a fundamentally new era in physics in which empirical science was supplemented with theoretical practice. The shift in scientific methodologies had a profound effect on Western culture, especially when coupled with the modernist movement in literature, the development of impressionist and cubist forms of art, the carnage of World War One, and Sigmund Freud’s work in psychoanalysis and on the subconscious. It seemed as though to many universal truths were being undermined.
Contrast the cultural reaction to quantum physics in the United States and Europe with the earlier reaction to Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection. In your opinion, which had a larger cultural effect? Why?
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