Element 9 states that a test user, “evaluate(s) the available evidence on the performance of test takers of diverse subgroups . . . determine(s) to the extent feasible which performance differences may have been caused by factors unrelated to the skills being assessed.” Together, the previous course assignments and this current one involving Element 9 will provide you with the data, research, and literature reviews across all nine elements of the Code to assist your decision-making process about the appropriate selection of a test.
For this final assignment:
Locate reviews or research related to how Element 9 applies to your selected test. If the research or reviews do not address this element in any way, then you will need to cite the references your reviewed and note that they were lacking in in addressing this element, drawing appropriate conclusions for when a test is lacking such evidence.
Synthesize all of the data and information you gathered on your selected test throughout the course and identify highlights, both positive and negative, both advantages and disadvantages, according to all nine elements of the Code.
Evaluate your selected test based on these data and draw a conclusion about whether or not it is a test that you would select, recommend, or even defend, if necessary in practice. Note: You should not merely copy and paste your earlier assignments for the final paper. Instead you will be synthesizing the research you completed for each element into a summary of that element that you will offer in support of your final evaluation. (For example, note that the technical quality element (that is, Element 5) will be only a synthesis and evaluation and not a repeat of the annotated bibliography you completed in Unit 5.)
Identify the strengths or weaknesses for each element, and determine if the information about that element supports (or opposes) the use of your selected test in the field and population to be served.
Incorporate recommendations about ways to improve the selected test.
Review all of your evaluations for each element and recommended improvements to the test, and write an overall evaluation and determination about the use of your selected test. Would you recommend this test to a school district or business that you are employed as a consultant? Would you be able to defend the use of this test in a court proceeding?
Organize your paper using the following headings:
Title page (required) (one page).
Abstract (required) (one page).
The Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education (a minimum of four pages). (For each element, identify strengths and weaknesses, evaluate the selected test for the element, and make recommendations, if any for improvement, citing appropriate standards of practice.)
Element 1. Purpose: Define the purpose for testing, the content, and skills tested (see Unit 2 assignment).
Element 2. Appropriateness: Evaluate appropriateness of test content, skills tested, and content covered (see Unit 2 assignment).
Element 3. Materials: Evaluate materials for which clear, accurate, and complete information is provided (see Unit 2 assignment).
Element 4. Training: Test users have appropriate knowledge, skills, and training (see Unit 2 assignment).
Element 5. Technical Quality:
Synthesis of evidence of reliability (see Unit 5 assignment).
Synthesis of evidence of validity (see Unit 5 assignment).
Element 6. Test Items and Format: Evaluate test items, test format, directions, manuals and scores (see Unit 7 assignment).
Element 7. Test Procedures and Materials: Evaluate test procedures and materials to ensure that potentially offensive content or language is avoided (see Unit 7 assignment).
Element 8. Modifications and Accommodations: Evaluate if tests provide appropriately modified forms or procedures for test takers with disabilities (see Unit 7 assignment).
Element 9. Group Differences: Evaluate evidence on performance of test takers of diverse subgroups.
Summary (two pages).
Overall recommendation to use the selected test in the field and with populations to be served.
If recommending the use of the selected test, identify the greatest strengths you discovered and determined in its use. Additionally, identify any limitations or concerns that may still exist with its use regardless of the recommendation. Are there still concerns for the test in certain situations?
If not recommending the use of the selected test, identify the greatest weaknesses you discovered and determined in its use. Additionally, identify any strengths that may still exist with its use regardless of the opposition. Are there still uses for the test within set parameters?
References (required, use current APA format and style).
Submit your draft to Turnitin prior to uploading it to the assignment area.
Your paper should meet the following requirements:
References: A minimum of nine references. These may include journal articles, literature reviews, Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) reviews, and publisher Web sites. At least five of the nine references must be from professional journals. It is likely and appropriate that many of these references and citations were included in one or more of your previous assignments. Alternatively, you may want to supplement your paper with current, peer-viewed journal articles you located after completing an earlier assignment. Those inclusions would also be acceptable.
Length of paper: At least six pages (not including title page, abstract, or references).
Element 9 states that a test user, “evaluate(s) the available evidence on the performance of test takers of diverse subgroups . . . determine(s) to the extent feasible which performance differences ma
11 COMPARING STANDARDIZED TESTS The original you sent me in included below these instructions. Thank you again!!! You selected one standardized test that has relevancy to your academic and professional goals to be the focus of your course project. Your Unit 2 assignment focused on the first four elements of the Code for selecting a test. For this assignment, you will complete a deeper analysis of the technical quality of your selected test by focusing on the fifth element of the Code, which states that the test user will “evaluate evidence of the technical quality of the test provided by the test developer and any independent reviews.” To complete this assignment, you will draw upon the knowledge you gained in Units 3 and 4 about psychometrics in general and reliability and validity in particular. For this assignment, you will use the test you selected for your project in Unit 2. Locate and summarize a minimum of seven articles related to the technical qualities of the selected test. You are encouraged to use the PSY7610 Library Research Guide, linked in the Resources, to assist your search. For each article: List the APA reference for each journal article (a minimum of seven). Identify if the article addresses reliability or validity. Discuss if the article addresses sources of error variance, reliability estimates, evidence of validity, or bias and fairness. Identify the specific type of reliability or validity (for example, test-retest reliability, predictive validity, et cetera). Identify the overall results of the research, including any psychometric or statistical outcome. Submit your analysis as a paper using the outline provided in the section “Organize Your Paper” below. Guidelines for Selecting the Literature Use the most current sources you can find. Do not use sources older than 8 years. (You may cite older sources if they are classics, if you want to show the chronology of something, or if you have another good reason. If you choose to use older sources, you will need to explain why.). Use current, peer-reviewed journal articles. Do not use sources without an author or a publication date. Do not use quotes; use only your own words. Please see the Plagiarism in Coursework document in the resources for concerns with high content matching in papers. Evaluate whether or not the results supports the use of your test as appropriate for your field and populations to be served. Note: The articles you need to complete this assignment should be available inside the library collection. In future courses, you may use the library’s Interlibrary Loan service to obtain articles outside of the collection, but you should not have to use the service for PSY7610. In the event that you cannot find articles covering a newer test edition, please refer to the List of Tests by Type, linked in the Resources. Note which tests have been designated as acceptable for searching prior test editions. Organize Your Paper For your paper, use the following headings: Title page (required). Abstract (optional). Introduction. Identify the standardized test you selected in Unit 2. Describe briefly the publisher’s stated purpose for its use. Identify briefly a population or psychological condition that is within the standardization of the test. Technical review article summaries. Each article is to be directly related to your chosen test and one aspect of its technical quality. Note: Use an annotated bibliography for evaluative information format (see the resources for additional information available at Capella about annotated bibliographies). List the APA reference for each journal article (a minimum of seven). Identify if the article addresses reliability or validity. Explain how the article addresses sources of error variance, reliability estimates, evidence of validity, or bias and fairness. Identify the specific type of reliability or validity (for example, test-retest reliability, predictive validity, et cetera). Identify the overall results of the research including any psychometric or statistical outcome. Conclusion. Synthesize the information from all the articles you reviewed about reliability. Synthesize the information from all the articles you reviewed about validity. Evaluate if your test continues to be deemed as appropriate for your planned use in the field and with the population to be served. References (required, use current APA format and style). Submit your draft to Turnitin prior to uploading it to the assignment area. Additional Requirements Your paper should meet the following requirements: References: A minimum of seven journal articles (textbooks, Web pages, literature reviews, and the MMY book reviews do not count for these references). Length of paper: Evaluation must be at least five pages in length for content (not including title page, abstract, or references). Abstract Psychological testing or assessment is the foundation by psychologist through which they understand patients and their behaviors better. For many professionals, the process is vital for problem solving especially in trying to understand the major components of a person’s mental health or psychological problems, IQ, personality, among other components. Nonetheless, the process does not only identify the weaknesses but also the strengths of a person. Psychological testing does not pertain to a single test or group of test but is a body of dozens of tests based on research results. Therefore, there are different types and forms of tests used in psychological assessment. For a career as a correctional/cognitive Behavior counselor, it is important to consider certain main factors when choosing the best test to apply. In this study, four factors will be considered with the first being the purpose for testing, skills and contents to be tested as well as test takers. The second factor pertains to the appropriateness of the test while the third deals with the developers’ materials. Finally, the study will focus on persons’ knowledge, skills and training. To do this, the study will use three different test types including Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Scales of Independent Behavior and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Comparing Standardized Tests Introduction Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the process by which psychologist get to understand the behaviors of an individual better. The psychologist uses the process to solve problems by determining the mental health and psychological health, IQ and personality of individuals (Framingham, 2016). More importantly, psychological assessment does not only measure the weaknesses in patients but also their strengths. The psychological performance of a person is measured at a particular point in time. As such, psychologists often refer to the test as present functioning. Thus, psychological tests are not meant to predict innate potential or future performance (Urbina & Anastasi, 1997). Psychological assessment does not refer to a single test or a single test type but a whole body of dozens of test that are research backed. Furthermore, the practice is only formally carried out by licensed psychologists. Based on the type of test being carried out, the practice can take between one hour and a whole day. As stated by Yeates & Taylor (2001), the process of choosing the test to administer is critical and takes into account several factors. The current study focuses on four main factors to compare and contrast three different test types which are Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Scales of Independent Behavior and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales as applied in correctional/cognitive Behavior counselor profession. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System provides a comprehensive assessment of the adaptive skills throughout an individual’s lifespan (Harrison & Oakland, 2005). Therefore, the purpose is to determine the performance in adaptive skills. The targeted test takers for this test range from birth up to 89 years. 11 skill areas are tested using norm-referenced scaled scores. In addition, the test focuses on descriptive categorization of scores as well as finding confidence intervals and standard scores. According to Wells et al. (2009), Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) is mainly carried out for program or diagnosis planning purposes. Norm-referenced assessment is provided for 14 areas of adaptive behavior and another 8 areas of maladaptive behavior. In addition, four adaptive domains of community living, personal living, social interaction and communication and motor skills are tested. The test is administered to persons aged 3 months to 80 years and above. Finally, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales determine the social and personal skills required for the daily living from birth till adulthood. The test is given to individuals from birth until 90 years of age. Since Adaptive Behavior Assessment System offers a measure of the adaptive skills that will determine a person’s survival throughout the lifespan, it is highly appropriate to undertake especially during the early stages of life. On the other hand, Scales of Independent Behavior is more appropriate in the determination of adaptive functioning and functional independence in jobs, schools, homes and the community setting as a whole (Wells et al, 2009). The test is one of the most widely used assessment methods all over the United States. The norm-referenced standardized tool has high degree of accuracy and usefulness. More importantly, the test is appropriate for school going children who are characterized by autistic characteristics. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales are used to measure social and personal skills that an individual requires for daily survival from birth through adulthood. According to Sparrow (2005), the measure is used to aid in classification and diagnosis of developmental and intellectual disabilities alongside other disorders such as autism, developmental delays and Asperger Syndrome. The materials provided by the developers of Adaptive Behavior Assessment System include Parent/Primary Caregiver Forms, Teacher/Daycare Provider Forms, Print Manual and Intervention Planner (Harrison & Oakland, 2005). Besides the print kits, there are also software kits containing Unlimited-Use Scoring Assistant and Intervention Planner Software and a Free U.S. shipping. Also information provided include the qualification which is level C and the administration time which is between 15 and 20 minutes. Finally, there is also an online kit having Online Forms (Carlson et al, 2014). Scales of Independent Behavior test is characterized by structured interview or questionnaire. The time requirement information has also been provided with different categories such as adults and early development being distinguished. More importantly, a response booklet is given with different rating scales such as adaptive, maladaptive and behavior rating scales (Carlson et al, 2017). Therefore, I find this test more accurate, clear and complete with information. Finally, the developers have also included information about requirement for evidence of reliability and validity and examiners, qualification which is stated trained and qualified. Finally, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales developers have given the Administrators of the test a qualification of B. Under the required knowledge, skills and training, ABAS-3 states that “Level C required” (Harrison & Oakland, 2005). Therefore, anyone who possesses qualifications below level C should not use this type of test. On the other hand, as stated by Wells et al (2009), the examiner qualification for Scales of Independent Behavior test is simply provided as trained and qualified. Therefore, there is no specific limit for the utilization of this test as long as one is a trained and qualified examiner. Finally, besides all the information available on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales test, in terms of administration, any individual can perform the task as indicated. The available materials for the test include 1 survey interview manual and parent/caregiver form manual, 1 expanded interview manual and 1 teacher rating form manual. Therefore, it is apparent that the test is not complex to administer and any individual can undertake the process. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-3) gives a complete adaptive assessment throughout the lifespan. Furthermore, as stated by Spies et al. (2010), the test can be carried out right from birth up to 89 years. A total of 11 adaptive skill areas are assessed across the main domain known as General Adaptive Composite (GAC) as well as three adaptive domains. The three domains are percentile ranks, standard scores and confidence intervals for standard scores. Additionally, the test has the ability to categorize the tests descriptively. The measure was published in 2015 and requires that the psychologist possess level C qualification. Finally, there are kits in print, software and online formats. The test is thus comprehensive and complete but seems to demand high qualification level. On the other hand, Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) was published in 1984 and makes use of structured interviews or questionnaires. The test is also carried out on individuals aged 3 to 80 years and above and requires a trained and qualified psychologist for administration. Finally, it has a manual that is used as the basis for validity and reliability test. Vineland-III tests are used for the classification and diagnosis of developmental and intellectual disabilities. In addition to these, it also tests Asperger Syndrome, developmental delays and autism. Three domain structures of Communication, Daily Living, and Socialization have been developed for the test. Nonetheless, any individual cannot conduct the administration of the test since it qualification level of B. The publication date for the test is 2005 which is not so current. In conclusion, I find Adaptive Behavior Assessment System more suitable since it is up-to-date, comprehensive in description and the test of adaptive skills is also vital since it affects one’s entire life. References Carlson, J.F. et al. (2014). The Nineteenth Mental Measurements Yearbook. Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook Series. University of Nebraska Press. Carlson, J.F. et al. (2017).The Twentieth Mental Measurements Yearbook. Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook Series. University of Nebraska Press. Framingham, J. (2016). Types of Psychological Testing. Psych Central. Retrieved on July 12, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/types-of-psychological-testing/ Harrison, P. & Oakland, T. (2005). (ABAS-3) Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Third Edition. WPS Publishing. Sparrow, S.S. (2005). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II). Clinical Psychology. Pearson. Spies, R.A et al. (2010). The Eighteenth Mental Measurements Yearbook. Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook Series. University of Nebraska Press. Urbina, S. & Anastasi, A. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Wells, K et al. (2009). A Comparison of Three Adaptive Behavior Measures in Relation to Cognitive Level and Severity of Autism. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, vol 15 (3): 55-62. Yeates, K.O & Taylor, G.H. (2001). Handbook of Psychoeducational Assessment. Science Direct.