explain all ethics questions in details (8 questions)

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Question Description

I’m working on a sociology multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

1 The most serious problem for desire satisfaction theory is that there are lots of things that people want/desire that appear to be bad for that person if she were to get it. Give an example of such a situation. Then, in as much detail as possible, explain what the desire satisfaction theorist will say to respond to this criticism. Give examples where helpful to explain your answer. Then discuss why the desire satisfaction theorist’s response is implausible.

2 What is ethical egoism? What is psychological egoism? Be sure to explain clearly the difference between the two, using examples to help clarify your explanation. Then explain and discuss the argument for ethical egoism that is based on psychological egoism- state the argument and all its relevant points/claims as clearly as you can.

3 What is hedonism? Clearly and carefully explain the difference between intrinsic value and instrumental value, and use these concepts to help to explain your answer about hedonism. Hedonists believe that instrumental value is relative to persons, but that intrinsic value is not. Explain what that means, giving examples to explain your answer. 

4 What is the one big problem for ethical egoism? Be sure to give examples of the problem and explain it in detail. Then explain what an ethical egoism will say to try to avoid this problem, and explain whether or not what the ethical egoist says really does circumvent the problem.

5 What is a valid argument? Give an example of a valid argument. Can a valid argument have false premises? Explain why or why not? What is the difference between a valid argument and a sound argument?

7 What is a moral dilemma? Explain why act utilitarians do not have a problem with moral dilemmas. Then explain why Kant has a problem with moral dilemmas, and how he tries to resolve the problem (you don’t need to explain the problems with Kant’s solution- just explain how he tries to address the problem).

8 Clearly and carefully explain the difference between act and rule utilitarianism. Then give an example of an act that would be right (or wrong) according to act utilitarianism, but that would be the opposite according to rule utilitarianism. Briefly explain the thinking of each theory that leads to their conclusions about the rightness/wrongness of this act you’ve cited as an example

11 What is the difference between a hypothetical and a categorical imperative? Give an example of each and explain why it is an example. Then discuss and explain Kant’s two different versions of the Categorical Imperative, and give an example of an action that is wrong according to each version (two examples, one for each version), and explain how it counts as an example.


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