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Global Societal Problem, Argument and Solution

[WLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Prepare: Prior to beginning work on this assignment, please review this 
Sample Final Paper GEN499

 Download Sample Final Paper GEN499
for additional guidance on the expectations of this assignment.

The topic of your essay needs to be a global societal problem from the following list:

· Climate change

· Pollution

· Religious conflict and violence

· Rise of artificial intelligence

· Lack of education

· Unemployment and lack of economic opportunity

· Government accountability and corruption

· Food and water security

· International drug trafficking

· Poverty and income inequality

Reflect: Based on the topic that you have chosen, you will need to use critical thinking skills to thoroughly understand how this topic can be a global societal problem and determine some logical solutions to the problem.

Write: This Final Paper, an argumentative essay, will present research relating the critical thinker to the modern, globalized world. In this assignment, you need to address the items below in separate sections with new headings for each.

In your paper,

· Identify the global societal problem within the introductory paragraph.

· Conclude with a thesis statement that states your proposed solutions to the problem. (For guidance on how to construct a good introduction paragraph, please review the 
Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)
 from the 
University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center (Links to an external site.)

· Describe background information on how that problem developed or came into existence.

· Show why this is a societal problem.

· Provide perspectives from multiple disciplines or populations so that you fully represent what different parts of society have to say about this issue.

· Construct an argument supporting your proposed solutions, considering multiple disciplines or populations so that your solution shows that multiple parts of society will benefit from this solution.

· Provide evidence from multiple scholarly sources as evidence that your proposed solution is viable.

· Interpret statistical data from at least three peer-reviewed scholarly sources within your argument.

· Discuss the validity, reliability, and any biases.

· Identify the strengths and weaknesses of these sources, pointing out limitations of current research and attempting to indicate areas for future research. (You may even use visual representations such as graphs or charts to explain statistics from sources.)

· Evaluate the ethical outcomes that result from your solution.

· Provide at least one positive ethical outcome as well as at least one negative ethical outcome that could result from your solution.

· Explain at least two ethical issues related to each of those outcomes. (It is important to consider all of society.)

· Develop a conclusion for the last paragraphs of the essay, starting with rephrasing your thesis statement and then presenting the major points of the topic and how they support your argument. (For guidance on how to write a good conclusion paragraph, please review the 
Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)
 from the 
University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center (Links to an external site.)


The Global Societal Problem, Argument, and Solution Paper

· Must be 1,750 to 2,250 words in length (approximately between seven and nine pages; not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style, as outlined in the University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center’s 
APA Style (Links to an external site.)

· Must include a separate title page with the following:

· Title of paper

· Student’s name

· Course name and number

· Instructor’s name

· Date submitted

· For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to 
APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.)

· Must utilize academic voice. See the 
Academic Voice (Links to an external site.)
 resource for additional guidance.

· Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.

· For assistance on writing 
Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)
 as well as 
Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.)
, refer to the University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center resources.

· Must use at least eight scholarly sources.

· Source Document Requirements:

· Multimedia sources (such as videos) may be used, but no more than two such sources may be used. If multimedia sources are used, they must be authored and distributed by credible sources, such as universities, law schools, medical schools, or professors, or found in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library.

· Government sources may be used, but no more than two such sources may be used. Examples include,,,, and so forth. These websites can be used to make a stronger point about your proposed solution within the argument.

· Where documents are used for source materials, those must be peer-reviewed, scholarly journal articles, and academically published books. Popular media sources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television and radio shows, etc.) must not be used. Materials from advocacy groups (e.g., Greenpeace, Human Rights Campaign, National Organization for Women, etc.) must not be used.

· Sites such as and Wikipedia must not be used.

· Religious texts must not be used.

· The 
Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)
 table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for an assignment. The 

Integrating Research

 (Links to an external site.)
 tutorial will offer further assistance with including supporting information and reasoning.

· Must document in APA style any information used from sources, as outlined in the University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center’s 
Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)

· Must have no more than 15% quoted material in the body of your essay based on the Turnitin report. References list will be excluded from the Turnitin originality score.

· Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style. See the 
Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)
 resource in the University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center for specifications.

Good Critical Thinking Tips:

· Your paper should include academic sources that explain multiple sides of the issue.

· Your interpretations of the evidence should be objective and state the conclusions and theses presented in the evidence clearly and fairly.

· Your paper should place the various forms of evidence in relation to one another and demonstrate why one form or perspective is stronger than the other positions that one could take on the issue.

· Your paper should point out the limitations of current evidence and attempt to indicate areas for future research.

Page 2

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:34:29 PM
You should not be writing just a basic review of what climate change is. The most pressing
concern right now is with plans to mitigate the effects of climate change and to reverse the
trends. The focus of your paper should be there.

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:33:57 PM
Vague proposal. The proposal should be feasible, actionable, relevant, timely, and

Page 4

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:40:29 PM
editing error

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:39:51 PM
Does the article provide evidence that shows that such education campaigns have a
positive effect?

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:40:56 PM
This might be good for the early part of the paper when you are explaining the scope of
the climate change problem.

Page 5

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:39:08 PM
This is a solution for preserving farming. It does not really address climate change itself.

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:35:56 PM
References must be placed in alphabetical order per current APA Style guidelines. See
this Writing Center page for help with your references list:

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:32:58 PM
This is all old news. It does not need rehashing. The current issues are what to do about
climate change, not the causes of climate change.

Page 6

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:36:16 PM
This article appears relevant, so I would not say that you should not use it. However, you
should consider this article as an additional source, not adding to the count of scholarly

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:37:08 PM
Here is the kind of subject that should be the focus of your paper.

Author: David Layton    Subject: Highlight    Date: 27/05/2022 10:37:31 PM
Solutions cannot be based on what individuals do. There is no mechanism by which to
compel individuals to change their behavior in the desired way. Focus the proposals on
what institutions such as government and corporations can do.


Climate Change


Institutional Affiliation

Course Number and Name



Climate change is a massive hazard to people all around the world. The significant distinction between climate change and weather is that climatic change is measured over time, an extended period, and can vary from day to day or year to year. The climate of a location is influenced by seasonal rainfall and wind patterns. Human activities such as coal combustion and other fossil fuels like oil contribute significantly to climate change (Liu et al, 2018). Climate experts agree that human activities are to blame for the recent global warming and the substantial consequences of future climate change. Climate change is causing societies worldwide to work together to address new difficulties that were not foreseen as some people may be forced to relocate as a result of climate change.

More research is needed to develop effective climate change mitigation strategies because of the harmful impact of the problem on plants, animals, and people. There are many decisions and human activities influencing the earth systems and processes which lead to increase to global warming and these human activities and the decisions need to be addressed quickly. Climate change leads to extreme events such as droughts and floods but embracing renewable energy can help reduce climate change.

Background Information on Climate Change

Burning fossil fuels is one human activity that emits large amounts of carbon dioxide over time and traps heat in the lower atmosphere. A considerable shift in average weather conditions over several years, such as growing wetter, dryer, or warmer, is defined as climate change (Saarinen, 2020). Climate change threatens everyone, affects everyone, and some communities are more vulnerable than others (Blattner, 2020). Megacities, small islands, other coastal regions, and hilly areas are especially susceptible to the climatic changes.

Children, especially those in developing countries, are susceptible to health dangers. Elderly adults and people with disabilities or pre-existing medical conditions are more prone to have serious health problems. Climate change is a major global issue, and many agencies have called for action in response, even though experts agree that human activity is the primary cause of climate change. On the other hand, conservative Americans do not believe that human activity leads to climatic changes. Most conservatives deny that climate change is a reality. While the consequences of climate change are evident, it is remarkable that some people still deny that it is happening and that it is caused by human activity.

The heat emitted from the Earth’s surface is absorbed by greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide. High concentrations of these gases cause the earth to warm by trapping more heat. The combustion of fossil fuels has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere by about 40% since the beginning of the revolution of industries. Widespread thermometer records provide the most apparent evidence for surface warming. Other evidence of global warming exists such as warming of the lower atmosphere and Upper Ocean layers.

In the Northern Hemisphere, snow and ice cover have also decreased. In addition, the Greenland ice sheet is melting, and sea levels are rising. The main result of climate change, global warming, has a tremendous impact on Earth (Von et al, 2021). It can, for example, create intense health waves that result in scorching days and nights. Drought and wildfires are caused by increased evaporation on land due to global warming. Climate change may bring higher precipitations which are heavy showers and snowstorms in various world places as atmospheric capacity increases. Due to warmer waters and a moister atmosphere, climate change is also linked to more hurricanes. The expansion of water quantities as the ocean warms has accelerated sea-level rise.

Mountain glaciers are melting in various parts of the planet, and the Antarctic ice sheets and Greenland are losing mass.

Climate change has an impact on infection patterns. Climate change affects waterborne disease, according to (WHO, 2018) leading to increased illnesses. Climate change can lengthen and change the transmission seasons of common vector-borne diseases and their geographic range. Climate change, for example, is predicted to significantly expand the geographic area where the snail-borne illness can be found in China. Additionally from research, it has been proven that climatic changes have a significant effect in the increase of diseases and illnesses.

Solutions to Climate Change

Climate change has several negative consequences for people, animals, plants, items, and the planet. Fortunately, there are various options for reversing, stopping, or preventing climate change. Stopping deforestation and supporting afforestation are the initial measures in dealing with this worldwide issue of climate change. Stopping forest degradation and encouraging and investing in tree plantations involves government and individual action. Preventing forest degradation, particularly in tropical countries, is vital for combating climate change. Deforestation is responsible for about 25% of greenhouse gas emissions. Ten nations are responsible for deforestation, with Indonesia and Brazil accounting for 54 percent of total emissions. Increased forest cover can boost carbon sequestration because forests absorb CO2. It also supports this idea, noting that reforestation is one of the world`s top priorities in the fight against climate change. Most governments have begun to set aside 1 million hectares of forest planting every year.

Renewable energy adoption is the second solution to global climate change. Renewable energy is usually at the top of the possible climate change adaptations list. Renewable energy sources are recommended for reducing climate change since they do not emit carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases (Brecken, 2020). Geothermal energy, biomass, wind energy, solar energy and hydroelectric power are all examples of renewable energy sources. The majority of wealthy countries are transitioning away from fossil fuels and toward renewable energy.

The countries have also adopted flexible policies and approaches to renewable energy implementation. Renewable energy regulations should be implemented by cities, states, and national governments worldwide. Improving energy efficiency is another way to combat climate change. According to the report, most cultures waste a lot of energy. Energy efficiency initiatives in all industries can make a significant, necessary, painless, and non-controversial contribution.


Energy efficiency can reduce an approximate 30 to 50% of the total emissions from carbon dioxide, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) (Chausson et al., 2020). According to the European Commission, energy efficiency measures might result in a cost-effective 20% reduction in the European Union’s current energy usage in the coming years. As a result, energy efficiency is also a viable option in reducing climate change. Therefore, adopting friendlier renewable energy solutions are very essential in reducing climate change.


Blattner, C. (2020). Just transition for agriculture? A critical step in tackling climate change. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development9(3), 53-58.

Michael Hall, C., & Saarinen, J. (2021). Twenty years of Nordic climate change crisis and tourism research: A review and future research agenda. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism21(1), 102-110.

Ostad-Ali-Askar, K., Su, R., & Liu, L. (2018). Water resources and climate change. Journal of Water and Climate Change9(2), 239.

Scott, D., & Becken, S. (2020). Adapting to climate change and climate policy: Progress, problems, and potentials. Journal of Sustainable Tourism18(3), 283-295.

Von Uexkull, N., & Buhaug, H. (2021). Security implications of climate change: A decade of scientific progress. Journal of Peace Research58(1), 3-17.


*This sample paper was adapted by the Writing Center from an original paper by a
student. Used by permission.

Updated March 2021


The introduction should introduce your topic and share the societal problem that you see. At the end of the
introduction, you should state your thesis, which should include your proposed solution to the problem. You may
also state the positive ethical effects of your proposed solution.

To Test or Not to Test: Ethics in Animal Testing

The subject of animal testing raises questions of necessity. Animal testing is

something that has been done for many years for several different reasons. It has been

used since the dawn of medicine by physicians and scientists. From biomedical research

to testing cosmetics, people claim that animal testing is necessary to benefit people in sa-

tiating their need for certain products as well as saving lives. There is an idea that animals

are the best way to find treatments and cures for people, but the treatment of animals is of

concern for some members of society. Society is feeling more and more that animals

have as much right to live freely in this world as humans do, and our obligation to see to

this makes animal testing a societal problem. Due to these concerns and others, there

have been several laws and acts formed to protect animals and minimize their suffering.

And with the advances of technology and other discoveries, the question of the necessity

of animal testing is becoming an issue for animal activist s and lovers everywhere. { The
future of medicine and biomedical research should not rely on animals for testing. In-

stead, we should use alternative testing methods and work toward making different life-

style choices. These solutions create the ethical outcome of ending the suffering of these

animals, which will have a positive influence on society and culture}.

Here, the
student is

introducing the
topic of animal
testing to the


The introduction
includes a very
brief discussion
of why this is a
societal problem.

The introduction
ends with a

thesis statement
that includes the


solution(s) to
the societal

problem. She
also has

included the
positive ethical
outcome of the


Use section headers for
each of the major

sections of your paper.


This first body section of your paper
should provide some background
information on your topic and discuss why
this is a societal problem.

Background Animal testing has been deemed necessary for many reasons. Animal testing has

been done to determine the safety of household cleaning products, cosmetics including


Reason #1


skin care, shampoo and makeup, as well as biomedical research that provides medicine

and treatments for humans and pets alike. The BioIndustry Association (2002) argues that

“Animal research has made a vital contribution to the development of medicines that save

many lives every day” (as cited in Taylor, 2005, p. 7). In 1938 Congress passed the Food,

Drug and Cosmetic Act because of public demands after tragic incidents involving an

untested product (“Why Do Companies Test Cosmetics,” 2013). There have been many

arguments and evidence that shows the “good” that animal research has done in regards

to biomedical research. Studies involving dogs, rats, rabbits, cats, chickens, pigs and

sheep have all helped to contribute to the understanding of heart disease. Drugs and vac-

cines that can be a possible solution to the devastating HIV/AIDS virus are present due to

the tests that have been performed on chickens, cats and monkeys with a similar virus.

Animals have been used as models for research for almost every disease that is known to

man (Lee, 2015). If animal testing has contributed to creating drugs for diseases as seri-

ous as cancer and HIV/AIDS, naturally animals are being used to find cures and treat-

ments for many other diseases and sicknesses.

Therefore, how could animal testing be wrong? Indeed, research has shown that

testing is helpful to progress in the field of medicine and biomedical research as

well as developing treatments that are yielding promising results. However, it comes with

a high cost. It comes with the cost of animals being subjected to tests that put them

through distress and can harm or kill them. Humans and animals are both sentient beings;

sentient meaning a person or being that has feelings or that can feel (Merriam-Webster,

n.d.). Research shows that 37% percent of animals used for science suffer moderate to

severe stress and discomfort or severe pain (National Statistics, 2014). When it comes to

In this paragraph,
the student has
given the reader

some background
information on the


This paragraph
discusses the first
reason that ani-
mal testing is a
societal problem
and provides
evidence to
support this.


using animals for science and experimentation, people tend to focus on the fact that non-

human animals are inferior to humans. Regardless of whether or not this is true it does

not take away from the fact that animals are sentient and that they experience pain and

seek pleasure. Animals and people react to pain in similar ways by screaming or trying to

avoid the source of the pain. “The American Veterinary Association defines animal pain

as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience perceived as arising from a specific

region of the body and associated with actual or potential tissue damage” (Dunnuck, n.d.,

para. 6). Some of the animals used in biomedical research are not given any pain relief.

They are subjected to painful conditions and physical procedures that leave them in in-

tense cold or heat, or have limbs crushed and spinal cords damaged (Callanan, 2009).

Pain and suffering are unique to every individual. Every person’s and even animal’s pain

threshold is different. However, evidence clearly shows the pain that is experienced by

these animals is experienced the same way that it is in humans.

Reason #2 Physical pain is unfortunately not the only problem that these animals undergo.
This next para-

Psychological distress, fear, and sadness have been demonstrated amongst a wide variety

of species (Ferdowisiann & Beck, 2011). The use of chimpanzees and other primates for

animal testing has generated a lot of controversy because of their similarities to humans.

Ironically enough, it is also the reason that so many researchers have wanted to use them

as models. Indeed chimpanzees are highly emotional and intelligent creatures that are

evolutionarily and genetically similar to human beings. This is the argument of research-

ers that makes them great candidates for biomedical research. Philosophy Department

Chair Lori Gruen states, “They’re very similar to us in terms of their emotional lives and

graph discusses a
second reason
that animal testing
is a societal
problem and
again provides
evidence to
support this.


Reason #3

This next section of your paper is where
you will discuss your proposed solution(s)
to the problem.

their intellectual and physical and social experiences, and using them in painful, invasive

ways is to harm them; they don’t consent to it” (Lee, 2015, p. 3).

Besides the obvious reasons of the pain and suffering that these animals feel, there

is the question of the necessity for animal testing in regards to medical advances. Despite

the increasing number of technological alternatives to animal testing, over 100 million

animals are legally used for animal experiments each year for medical research alone. In

2007, England, Wales and Scotland used 3.1 million animals for genetic and biomedical

experimentation (Callanan, 2009). In October of 2006 attendees of the opening day of the

Joint World Congress for Stroke in Cape Town, South Africa were devastated at the fail-

ure of a drug that was intended for ischemic stroke. The drug, NXY-059, had reached

phase III of clinical trials and failed to do what the animals used for the research had

promised. The drug was supposed to “stop the cascade of the necrosis in the event of a

stroke, and protect the remaining viable brain cells” (Gawrylewski, 2007, para. 3). Direc-

tor of Michigan Alzheimer’s Diseases Research Center in the Department of Neurology

at the University of Michigan Sid Gilman says that one of the major faults in the trials for

NXY-059 was its use of animal models (Gawrylewski, 2007). Besides the millions of

dollars wasted, there was a waste of life and unnecessary use of animals for painful re-

search. This is one of many examples of disappointing let-downs of drugs that were test-

ed on animals that did not work.

This paragraph
discusses a third
reason that
animal testing is
a problem.

Evidence is used
to support this.

Solution #1


Considering the horrific psychological and physical pain that animals have to go

through in the midst of testing for biomedical research, alternative testing methods are in


order. According to Callanan (2009), there has been much successful research and many

tests done to help find treatments for diseases and sicknesses that have plagued humans

and did not involve animal testing. Many scientists have started and are continuing to de-

velop alternate ways to test and find treatments for people because they do not want to

harm animals. Some of these new developments include cell cultures, analytical technol-

ogy, micro-organisms, computer models, population research, and volunteer studies. Cell

cultures have contributed to the understanding of cancer, Parkinson’s, and HIV/AIDS.

Analytical technology uses equipment that selects anti-cancer and anti-malaria drugs be-

cause of the reaction it produces with DNA. Computer models are allowing for virtual

experiments to be conducted (Callanan, 2009). Tissue engineering is also an alternative to

animal testing. It uses a 3-D skin equivalent that is physiologically comparable to skin. It

investigates wound healing melanoma research, infection biology, analysis of infection,

invasion of different pathological microorganisms and immunological, histological, and

molecular-biological analysis. This study has been inspired by economical and ethical

incentive (Mertsching et al., 2008). Animals are subjects for painful and uncomfortable

vaccine success for human diseases. However, some researchers have begun to rely only

on human data, cells and tissue. As far as vaccine development goes, researchers have set

up a surrogate in-vitro human immune system to help predict an individual’s immune re-

sponse to certain drugs and vaccines. This test has been compared with data from animal

experimentation and has proven to produce more accurate pre-clinical data (Ferdowsian

& Beck, 2011). This evidence shows that alternative ways to test treatments are in fact

possible and even better, making testing on animals more of a choice than a necessity.

In this paragraph,
the student dis-
cusses her first

You can see that
she used several
pieces of
evidence to
support her
argument that
this solution is


Solution #2 Along with alternatives to animal testing, there are alternative lifestyle choices

In this paragraph,
the student dis-

that can prevent people from having to use the drugs that are being tested on animals.

Naturally there are some things that are out of people’s control including genetics and

accidents that cause serious bodily harm. However, there is the choice to exercise, eat

healthy, and engage in healthy behavior and activities that will prevent a lot of diseases

that call for people to use some of the drugs that tested on animals. Complementary and

alternative as well as integrative healthcare include preventative healthcare, and natural

remedies to help treat the physical body as well as treating the mental state. Having better

habits can help to eliminate some of the issues that these medicines that torture animals

can be good for. For instance, headaches and migraines are a common problem unfortu-

nately. According to the International Headache Society, 46% of the adult population suf-

fers from regular headaches 11% suffers from migraines while about 46% suffers from

tension headaches (as cited in Adams & Lui, 2013). Also noted is that the most common

way that people treat headaches and migraines is through conventional medicines that

include acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that

may cause a plethora of issues including dry mouth, constipation, seizures, and weight

gain. These are also some of the things that they induce animals with in order to see if the

drugs they are giving out work. There are several different alternative methods to treating

headaches in migraine including drinking more water, having a healthier diet, acupunc-

ture, massage therapy, yoga, meditation, and breathing exercises. These are all cruelty

free and have been shown to help people (Adams & Lui, 2013). Again, these alternative

and preventative treatments offer a solution to the problem of animal testing.

cusses her
second proposed

You can see that
she used several
pieces of
evidence to
support her
argument that
this solution is


biases, I do not feel that any of the evidence presented here from these sources is biased

in any way. For example, some of the authors may very well feel strongly that animals

should not be tested, but the evidence used was not based solely on opinion. Instead, it

Here, the
discusses any
possible biases
of the evidence
presented in the

was based on facts, studies, and experts in the field. For this reason, I do not feel that the

sources used here are scholarly, peer-reviewed articles which makes them both valid and

reliable. There are also a few sources used here that would be considered popular sources.

However, the information used from these sources is valid and reliable because these

sources are secondary sources where the evidence used from them was provided by relia-

ble organizations. For example, one source (Merriam-Webster, n.d.) was used only to

provide a definition to the reader for background information. This definition is valid and

reliable. Another source (“Why Do Companies Test Cosmetics,” 2013) was used to pro-

vide background information on the 1938 Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, which is also

valid and reliable information. A third source was also used to provide a definition for

background information (Dunnuck, n.d.). This definition is from the American Veterinary

Association and is valid and reliable. While some of the sources can be seen as having

The student
has discussed
why the
evidence used
in the paper is
valid and
reliable and
has discussed
individually to
show this.

evidence used here contains biases. The real strength of each of my sources is that they

did include valid and reliable evidence and they were not simply appealing to the emo-

tions of the reader. The main weakness of the sources is that some failed to provide alter-

native viewpoints to their argument.

Strengths and
weaknesses of
the sources
are also

Be sure to use a
topic sentence
for each of your
body paragraphs

to indicate the
focus of the

In this section evaluate all of the evidence you used by discussing the validity, reliability, and any biases. Identify
the strengths and weaknesses of your sources. Interpret and discuss the statistical data you used and explain it
to your reader. You may even want to use visual representations such as graphs or charts to show statistics.
Then, point out the limitations of current research and attempt to indicate areas for future research.

Evaluation of the Evidence

The evidence used here is all valid and reliable and without bias. The majority of


Several of the sources provide statistical data that needed to be interpreted. The

statistic from National Statistics (2014) about the percentage of animals for science that

suffer can be seen in the following graph:

In this paragraph,
the student
statistical data
from a source
and also provides
a graph to show
a visual
representation of
this data. Be sure
to cite any visual
data that you

This statistical evidence shows that while there are certainly animals used for research

that are not suffering, more than 37% are suffering, which is more than a third of all of

these animals. These statistics provide evidence that show a concrete percentage of the

suffering that is occurring.

The future of biomedical research can continue to make advances without causing

harm and suffering to sentient beings. However, more research will need to be done to

find additional alternatives and to make the most out of the current alternatives. There is

also limited research on preventative measures of healthcare related to the issue of animal

testing. It would be useful to see more correlation studies done on preventative medicine

and a drop in the need for biomedical testing.

Here, the
student states
some of the
limitations of
current re-
search on the
topic and/or
areas where
more research
is needed.

Ethical Outcomes of Solution

For this section of the paper, the
student discusses ethical arguments for
and against implementing her proposed
solutions. In this section, you can refer
to ethical theories as well as your own
personal ideas about what is ethical or

The issue about the physical and emotional pain that animals feel during animal

has been considered by supporters a “necessary evil.” This offers insight to a utili-

tarian view of why we use animals for testing purposes. Utilitarianism is the idea that

when there is a choice between two acts, the one chosen should yield the greatest amount

of happiness for the greatest number of people (Mosser, 2013). There is an obvious corre-

lation with this way of thinking when it comes to animal research. Throughout different

studies involving the opinions and thoughts on animal testing, people use words like “re-

grettably” or phrases like “necessary evil.” The BioIndustry Association (2002) states,

“If we are to develop effective new treatments against mass killers such as cancer and

heart disease, regrettably [animal testing] will continue to be necessary for the foreseea-

ble future” (as cited in Taylor, 2005, p. 7). The utilitarian view claims that despite wheth-

er people’s acts are morally right or wrong, the results, consequences, or effects of the

acts shown will determine the morality of what is done (Regan, 1997). The theory of util-

itarianism shows that ending animal testing would lead to a negative outcome for society

because it could cause more people to suffer.

This first para-
graph of this
section shares an
argument that
could be
considered a
negative ethical
outcome to her


Ending animal suffering is clearly a positive ethical outcome, and the solutions of

alternative testing and alternative lifestyles can create this outcome. One of the issues that

animal activists have with this practice is that animals are sentient beings who feel and

are aware of what is happening to them. They feel pain and fear in knowing that they are

being harmed. It has been shown in research and is no secret that animals are sentient and

feel pain and react to pain virtually the same way that humans do. It presents an ethical

dilemma because animal testing inflicts pain, suffering, and death to non-consenting

This section
shares an
argument that
could be
considered a
positive ethical
outcome to her





In this section, summarize the main
points made in your paper.


sentient beings (Masterton, 2014). Their lives obviously mean something to them due to

the noticeable depression they are in when under the conditions of tortuous research. Re-

gardless of the good that animal testing has done, it does not take away from the fact that

pain and suffering is involved to the beings that are a part of it. Using alternative testing

practices and adopting alternative lifestyles of preventative care can help eliminate the

need for harming animals in the name of medicine.

The positive ethical outcome of ending the suffering of animals in the name of

medicine outweighs the argument that testing animals provides the greatest good for the

greatest number. The reason for this is that the argument for the negative ethical outcome

can actually be avoided by using alternative testing measures. We can still continue to

test medicines and treatments without the use of animals. Scientist and researchers alike

are developing and testing new alternatives without having to set back all of the hard

work that has already been done and these alternatives have been successful. Finding

ways to treat and heal alternatively removes the horror of animal testing. Therefore, this

“necessary” evil is not necessary after all. And the greatest good for the greatest number

can still be reached without making animals suffer. Also, the solution of changing our

lifestyles to prevent needing so much medicine will lead to the greatest good for the

greatest number as well.

Here, the
student has
shown a
rationale for
why her pro-
posed solution
will produce a
positive ethical


While animal testing is a social concern for our society and culture, there are

ways that we can and should work to eliminate this. One major way to do this is by re-

searching and investing in alternative testing measures. There are alternatives that cur-

rently exist and are being used, but this needs to continue at a greater rate. The cost of


tackle because the way that we treat those who are not in a position of power, such as an-

imals, reflects on our identity and who we are as a culture and a society. Our character is

The student
ends her
paper by
stating why
this is an
conversation. in question if we continue to allow unnecessary suffering to animals to happen.

delaying this is the unnecessary suffering of innocent animals. We should also continue

with the current trend of investing in preventative healthcare such as living a healthy life-

style to help eliminate illnesses and the need for medicines. We now know more than ev-

er about the benefits and risks of certain foods, products, and behaviors and we are in a

greater position to use this for the good of all living beings. This is an important issue to



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Britain 2013.


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  • Problem
  • Solution
  • Ethical Outcomes of Solution
  • Conclusion

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