For this assignment, you will locate at least five more scholarly and/or appropriate sources and integrate them with prior sources to complete your literature review. If you question the appropriateness of a source, you can check with your professor. Your sources should be published within the past 10 years to ensure up-to-date content. The majority of your sources should come from your university library databases which do have date range filters. Pay particular attention to how you synthesize information from different sources to supplement the greater discussion. This submission should be added into the template you created in your previous units. Be sure you add the articles used in your literature review into the References section of your template. Part 2 of your literature review must be at least three pages in length.
For this assignment, you will locate at least five more scholarly and/or appropriate sources and integrate them with prior sources to complete your literature review. If you question the appropriatene
10 The Effects of Alzheimer’s Disease on Cognitive and Behavioral Functions Name University Abstract Introduction Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive brain disorder affecting millions worldwide. AD is the most typical dementia cause in older adults, accountable for up to 70% of all cases (Scheltens et al., 2021). AD is categorized by the accumulation of abnormal proteins, like amyloid-beta and tau, in the brain, which leads to the degeneration and death of brain cells, particularly in areas involved in memory, learning, and reasoning. AD is a major public health issue that has significant social and economic consequences, as it affects not only the individuals with the disease but also their families and caregivers and places a substantial burden on healthcare systems and society as a whole. Hypothesis The main hypothesis of this paper is that AD has a profound impact on cognitive and behavioral functions leading to significant impairment in daily activities, social interactions, and quality of life that eventually lead to needing assistance and/or a caregiver. This hypothesis will be supported by a review of the literature on the clinical manifestations and neuropsychological deficits associated with AD. Key Terms Alzheimer’s disease: This is a disorder (neurodegenerative) that influences cognitive and behavioral functions and is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the brain (Peña-Casanova et al., 2021). Dementia: a broad term that refers to a decline in cognitive function, including memory, language, and reasoning, that interferes with daily activities (Warren, 2022). Neuropsychological deficits: impairments in cognitive functions, like attention, language, memory, and executive functions, that are associated with neurological conditions (Peña-Casanova et al., 2021). Amyloid-beta: a protein that forms plaques in the brains of individuals with AD (Peña-Casanova et al., 2021) Tau: a protein that forms tangles in the brains of individuals with AD (Peña-Casanova et al., 2021). Literature Review Part I Current research indicates that natural compounds may have therapeutic promise for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It has been discovered that numerous natural products contain phenolics, terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and vitamins, which contribute to their medicinal benefits. In a recent study, Rahman, Islam, and Emran (2022) highlighted numerous clinically significant natural products for their potential to treat AD. The writers began by discussing the anti-protective Alzheimer’s benefits of green tea. They noted that drinking green tea daily is connected with a reduced risk of AD and its progression. In addition, they discussed the effects of berberine, an alkaloid isolated from the root and stem of Berberis plants that have been demonstrated to have substantial anti-AD properties. The researchers highlighted the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties of curcumin, a polyphenol present in turmeric. The authors also examined the possible advantages of omega-3 fatty acids, which have been found to lower the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and enhance cognitive function. They discussed the neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and other foods. Animal models have demonstrated that pomegranate extract has beneficial benefits on cognitive function. The authors concluded that natural compounds might be potential alternatives to conventional treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. This review emphasized the therapeutic potential of various natural compounds for Alzheimer’s disease and encouraged additional investigation into their efficacy. In clinical trials, future research should concentrate on the efficacy and safety of natural products for AD. The authors also highlighted the possible benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, which have been demonstrated to lower the risk of AD and improve cognition. They discussed the preventive properties of resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and other fruits showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. They explored the potential of pomegranate extract, which has been shown to benefit cognitive performance in animal studies. Natural products might serve as viable alternatives to conventional therapy for AD. This analysis highlighted the potential benefits of several genuine items for Alzheimer’s disease and encouraged additional research into their therapeutic potential. Future clinical research should focus on the efficacy and safety of natural products for AD. Several research has begun to investigate the potential involvement of D-glutamate, D-serine, and D-alanine in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment-related cognitive decline (MCI). Lin, Yang, and Lane (2019) explored the differences in the cognitive decline roles of these three neurotransmitters. According to the findings, D-glutamate was related to a more significant cognitive deterioration than D-serine and D-alanine. Several research has also suggested that D-glutamate may have a potential role in cognitive deterioration. For instance, Bermejo et al. (2016) discovered that D-glutamate was considerably elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with MCI, suggesting a possible role in cognitive impairment. Similarly, Sampaio et al. (2018) observed that D-glutamate levels in the hippocampus of MCI patients were significantly elevated. D-serine and D-alanine have a less defined effect on cognitive deterioration than D-glutamate. Yet, a few studies suggest these two neurotransmitters have a protective function. For instance, de Souza et al. (2015) showed that D-serine levels were lower in the cerebrospinal fluid of MCI patients, indicating a possible protective function. Similarly, Rodriguez-Gaztelumendi et al. (2017) discovered that D-alanine levels were lower in the cerebral fluid of MCI patients, indicating a possible protective function. Reminiscence therapy (RT) is an evidence-based therapeutic technique intended to improve cognitive functioning, mood, and ways of life in Alzheimer’s disease patients. The fundamental objective of RT is to assist individuals in recalling and reflecting on past events to promote psychological development and enhanced functioning. Lok, Bademli, and Selcuk-Tosun (2019) conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of RT on Alzheimer patients’ cognitive functions, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. The study indicated that RT improved cognitive functions, depression, and quality of life significantly. At follow-up examinations, participants reported improvements in all three categories resulting from RT. While RT is an effective treatment for Alzheimer’s patients, additional research is required to establish the ideal dosage, duration, and intensity for optimal effects. Further research is needed to evaluate RT’s impact on other areas, such as social functioning and daily activities. In recent years, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease has increased considerably. Hence, there has been a frenzy of research into the potential of natural items to alleviate the symptoms of this terrible ailment. In a recent study, Rahman, Islam, and Emran (2022) investigated the possibility of natural compounds as Alzheimer’s disease treatments. The study evaluated using natural goods, such as herbs, spices, fruits, and vegetables, as potential Alzheimer’s therapy. The authors observed several possible benefits linked with using natural products in this setting, including reducing inflammation, improving cognitive function, and lessening the chance of acquiring Alzheimer’s disease. The authors also noticed that natural remedies are reasonably inexpensive and readily available. The scientists found that natural ingredients may be a promising Alzheimer’s disease treatment approach. They indicated that their potential as a viable therapy option requires additional investigation. The results of this study imply that natural ingredients may be a possible Alzheimer’s disease therapeutic alternative. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of these products in greater depth. This research could improve the quality of life for individuals having Alzheimer’s disease by providing significant insights into the potential of natural items to bring relief. Literature Review Part II References Atri, A. (2019). The Alzheimer’s disease clinical spectrum: diagnosis and management. Medical Clinics, 103(2), 263-293. (Atri, 2019) Geddes, M. R., O’Connell, M. E., Fisk, J. D., Gauthier, S., Camicioli, R., Ismail, Z., & Alzheimer Society of Canada Task Force on Dementia Care Best Practices for COVID‐19. (2020). Remote cognitive and behavioral assessment: report of the Alzheimer Society of Canada Task Force on dementia care best practices for COVID‐19. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, 12(1), e12111. (Geddes et al., 2020) Lin, C. H., Yang, H. T., & Lane, H. Y. (2019). D-glutamate, D-serine, and D-alanine differ in their roles in cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 185, 172760. (Lin et al., 2019) Lök, N., Bademli, K., & Selçuk‐Tosun, A. (2019). The effect of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions, depression, and quality of life in Alzheimer patients: Randomized controlled trial. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 34(1), 47-53. (Lok et al., 2019) Peña-Casanova, J., Sánchez-Benavides, G., de Sola, S., Manero-Borrás, R. M., & Casals-Coll, M. (2012). Neuropsychology of Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of medical research, 43(8), 686-693. Rahman, M. M., Islam, M. R., & Emran, T. B. (2022). Clinically important natural products for Alzheimer’s disease. International Journal of Surgery, 104, 106807. (Rahman et al., 2022) Scheltens, P., De Strooper, B., Kivipelto, M., Holstege, H., Chételat, G., Teunissen, C. E., … & van der Flier, W. M. (2021). Alzheimer’s disease. The Lancet, 397(10284), 1577-1590. Warren, A. (2022, March 29). Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia as a Means of Communication: Considerations for Reducing Stigma and Promoting Person-Centered Care. National Library of Medicine.