Group Discussion Board Forum Instructions The purpose of these Group Discussion Board Forums is to expand your thinking about the course materials or apply course materials to counseling scenarios. So

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Group Discussion Board Forum Instructions

The purpose of these Group Discussion Board Forums is to expand your thinking about the course materials or apply course materials to counseling scenarios. Some of the discussion board questions have a strong analytical component, as fitting a graduate-level course. As a basis for your reflection/evaluation/application, you will be asked to review the content covered during the discussion module(s)/week(s). In fact, your thread as well as your replies to your classmates must be amply supported by course materials (the lectures and your textbook readings) and properly cited as indicated in the Group Discussion Board Forum Grading Rubric.

In response to the discussion question (Modules/Weeks 2, 4, 6), submit your thread by the date specified using approximately 250–400 words. The grading rubric does not grade for word count. However, realize that too many words may indicate wordiness, but too few words may indicate incomplete thought. In addition to supporting your thread from course sources (with proper, current APA citation), the integration of a Christian worldview is always appropriate. It is also expected that you will include at least two references in every Discussion Board initial post.

  • Use appropriate netiquette,
  • Write at graduate level, and
  • Cite in-text per current APA format and list references at the bottom of your post. It is expected that you will include at least one reference in every Discussion Board response post.

When citing any of the presentations provided in the Reading & Study folders, your references must look like the following:

Brewer, G., & Peters, C., (n.d.). [Insert audio lecture title or notes title]. Lynchburg, VA: Liberty

University.

So, for Module/Week 1, a reference would look like this (notice the proper use of APA form):

Brewer, G., & Peters, C. (n.d.). COUC 506 Week Three, Lecture One: Christian spirituality and the ministry of counseling. [PowerPoint]. Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University Online.


Topic:

·

The New Christian Counseling

·

Hawkins & Clinton:

· Chapter 4 Attachment and Relationships

·

·

Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling McMinn

:

· Chapter 1 Religion in the Counseling Office

· Chapter 2 Toward Psychological and Spiritual Health

https://biblia.com/api/plugins/embeddedpreview?resourceName=LLS:5DE4CF0C4A8F7F5A2CE6E885242A5294&historyButtons=false&layout=minimal&navigationBox=false&shareButton=false

For discussion this module/week, we consider how to counsel suffering clients. The class lectures, Entwistle, and McMinn all discuss the concept of suffering and factors guiding how we counsel those who are suffering. In fact, a careful reading of the Reading & Study materials indicates numerous concepts and principles that we could apply as we counsel those who are hurting.

1. Considering the numerous points that were made, make a list of at least 5 concepts (“questions to ask myself as I counsel those who are suffering. . . “) that you found particularly helpful, insightful, unique, or had not thought about before.

2. What guidelines would you particularly emphasize as you counsel hurting people?

3. Then consider this client’s statement: Client: “Dr. Counselor, I have been coming to you now for six weeks. I am not sure that counseling is working. I don’t feel any better now than when we started talking. Why are you not helping to remove this pain that I am feeling?” If your client expects that you help to remove the suffering, how would you respond, based on what you learned from your study for the week?

Group Discussion Board Forum Instructions The purpose of these Group Discussion Board Forums is to expand your thinking about the course materials or apply course materials to counseling scenarios. So
Running head: HAWKINS & CLINTON CHRISTIAN COUNSELING BOOK REVIEW 0 Hawkins & Clinton Christian Counseling Book Review Beverly Johnson Liberty University Hawkins & Clinton Book Review Summary The textbook Hawkins & Clinton (2015) “The New Christian Counselor” is an inspiring book that encourages and guides you through the vision and direction of Christian counseling. Hawkins and Clinton (2015) discusses the importance of this book is to assist in actively shaping our future to respond to the Spirit in love and loyalty, honor God, and imitate Christs kindness, humility, and strength in all we do (pp6), and further states that in Christian counseling it is necessary to maintain pace with advances in research, practice, and treatment (Hawkins & Clinton, pp.6) Further section of this paper, I will be identifying eight important concepts that Hawkins & Clinton (2015) had discussed in the book. The Cry of the Soul Chapter one of Hawkins & Clinton (2015) discuss that listening accurately to the client is a central counseling skill, when we listen, what do we hear? (pp.7). The authors are expressing that it is vitally important to actively listen to what is being said and understand what is being said to you. If you listen clearly you can understand better what the individual is saying and how they are feeling. Faith Matters Chapter one of Hawkins and Clinton (2015) discuss that mental health facilities are making provisions to include spirituality in counseling context, it is further stated “ We believe that graduate counseling training programs should conduct sensitivity training to help therapists relate more effectively to religious clients.” This being said, the authors are stating that more facilities and counselors have integrated religion approach to their clients more now for religious beliefs in clients and those whom are religious. These organizations have concluded that Faith matters in therapeutic context (pp18) “Competent counselors and psychotherapists are needed to show others that God matters and he is willing and able to assist with healing” (Hawkins & Clinton 2015, pp.19). Embracing the Revelation of Scripture Chapter one of Hawkins & Clinton 2015 expresses that Christian counselors need to be the students of the broad scope of the biblical theology, and need to be armed with key biblical passages (pp21). Here the authors is expressing that counselors should express more biblical scriptures to their clients, scriptures that fit their needs, for example; a scripture for pain or for guidance. “The ultimate task of a Christian counselor is to be Christ’s partner” (Hawkins & Clinton 2015, pp21). People find comfort in biblical scriptures. Multicultural Care and Advocacy Chapter one of Hawkins and Clinton (2015) concepts have become accessible more now than in previous years. With the advancement in technology it is now possible for counselors to reach thousands of people by being informed, and to give advice to address issues globally. The advocacy mission is to be the voice for those who are unable to help themselves and advocators recognize that trauma is a special issue and an opportunity for Christians counselors to offer hope and healing (Hawkins & Clinton, 2015, p.23-24). The Complexity of Life The most important concepts in chapter two of Hawkins and Clinton (2015) having a new appreciation for the complexity of the human experience like the way people think, the things that motivate them, and personal and professional relationships. People who attend church services throughout their life, most still have not encountered that life changing power of God’s love (Hawkins & Clinton, 2015, p. 36). People are living a life of suffering, addiction, depression, and many other things that hold them in bondage. This could be, because many might not understand the need for God’s grace and the power of the gospel. Grace and Truth Together In chapter two the concept that is important according to Hawkins and Clinton (2015) understands human nature and its complexities, and all the problems in people lives are great with so many resources within reach no one should live in isolation. The Christian counselor counsels justice to biblical truth where sin is a factor in so many people lives, which has caused so much damage, brokenness, and disparity. Honoring God and all those who need help has to be met with something other than a simplistic approach (Hawkins & Clinton, 2015, p.37). The Emotional Dimension and the Shaping of the Soul The most important concepts in chapter three of Hawkins and Clinton (2015) one of the goals to therapy are to perceive and process emotions and clients come for help with the idea that they need to get over negative emotions, but the only way to do that is to suppress those emotions and that only leads to an implosion or explosion of the clients emotions which can be a very dangerous situation. Having a healthy and productive view of emotions is to look at it as indicators or motivators when something is going wrong (Hawkins & Clinton, 2015, p.92). Sin as Addiction Chapter one of Hawkins and Clinton (2015) concept is not all addictions are sin, but all sin has a destructive quality of addiction. No matter what degree of influences all sin numbs the moral senses through tolerance and everyone is responsible for their own actions no matter what the contributing factors may be understood by Christian counselors. Sin is irrational and will destroy hopes, dreams, relationships, and families; sin is equal to addiction and will lead to a form of slavery-being a slave to the sin and addiction (Hawkins & Clinton, 2015, p.140-141). Analysis Hawkins and Clinton (2015) integration approach in Christian counseling has taken huge steps in establishing credible clinical outcomes of faith based counseling. Christian counselors are finding the more productive therapy techniques for Christian counseling like Biblically informed and empirically supported therapies that is producing better treatment that is related to Judeo Christian theology which will treat many different clinical issues (Hawkins & Clinton, 2015, p.23). Hawkins and Clinton approach represents the model applied integration-using integrative principles for the benefit of others, and public and personal integration for personhood of the counselor, because this book is about helping counselors gain a better understanding into faith based counseling. This will allow Christian counselors the opportunity to better serve their clients. Hawkins and Clinton would not identify psychological issues apart from spiritual, because the book is about building on the whole aspects of faith based counseling to include God, and client in order to create an better assessment in which to provide the best care for every client (Brewer and Peters, HSCO, Week One, Lecture Two). Psychological theory and research is important to Hawkins & Clinton approach, because Christian counselors believe in the Scriptures and that God word is Truth! God has the power to transform life as we believe in the Scriptures. We are conduits of God’s power, his reason, his love, his hurt, and faith for when times are tough and faith is being tested God is there (Hawkins & Clinton, 2015, p.43). Application As a professional counselor working with many clients with mental illnesses, substance abuse issues, dysfunctional and abusive relationships it is my job to assess each client to be able to adequately work with them. The very first thing I would do is take an assessment of the client, the use of Clinical Assessment and Subjective and Objective Assessment would be useful in order to analyze the clients problems and better understand them and assist the client with an accurate treatment plan that best fits them. Hawkins & Clinton (2015) discuss that counseling, like medicine, begins with accurate assessment, “you can’t treat what you don’t see, and can’t treat properly what you don’t see accurately” (Hawkins & Clinton 2015, pp244-246). I would also apply “The Cry of the Soul” method, listening accurately to the client (Hawkins & Clinton 2015, pp.7). This is an essential skill it allows you to actively hear and understand what your client is saying and what is going on with them inside and out. When you actively listen you can better understand the emotions and hear the pain, fear, happiness and sadness in the client. Hawkins & Clinton 2015 explains that “when we listen, what do we hear? (pp.7). If we actively listen we can be able to hear tension, fear, violence and more in an individual’s voice and body actions. As we had moved on from assessments and evaluating the client as a Christian counselor I would offer “The Process of Christian Counseling” Hawkins & Clinton 2015 expresses that the goals and process of counseling – trusting God to change thoughts ,behaviors, and emotions- are thoroughly grounded in the Bible (pp.46). This process I would use with a client with reading some scriptures as it helps to calm the body and soul. Another process I would use is the “Three Biblical Antidotes to Anxiety “Paul reveals three crucial antidotes to fear drenched anxiety. The first antidote is prayer- entreating, God to deliver help, encouragement, and resources. The second antidote is to refocus our thought on things that are good, true, and worthy of our focus. The third antidote is imitative learning – this is to follow our mentors, leaders and others in the godly community, learn and serve as a strong antidote to obsessive, anxious thoughts ( Hawkins & Clinton 2015, pp.47-48). References Hawkins, R., & Clinton, T. (2015). The new Christian counselor: A fresh biblical and transformational approach. Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers. Brewer, G., & Peters, C. (n.d.). HSCO 506 Week One, Lecture Two: Five models for interdisciplinary integration. [PowerPoint]. Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University Online
Group Discussion Board Forum Instructions The purpose of these Group Discussion Board Forums is to expand your thinking about the course materials or apply course materials to counseling scenarios. So
Rubric Deta il A r u bric lis ts g ra d in g c rit er ia t h at in str u cto rs u se to ev alu ate stu d en t w ork . Yo ur in str u cto r lin ked a r u bric t o t h is it em a n d m ad e it a va ila ble to y o u . S elec t G rid V ie w o r L is t Vie w t o c h an ge th e ru bric ‘s la yo u t.   A dva nced P ro cien t Develo pin g No t P res ent Th rea d: Co nten t 18 (3 6.0 0% ) – 2 0 (4 0.0 0% ) All ke y co mpo nen ts o f th e D is cu ssio n B oard F o ru m prompt a re a n sw ere d in a n ew th re ad. Th e t h re ad has a cl ear, lo gica l o w a n d in cl ude s a t le ast 3 00- 400 w ords . M ajo r po in ts a re s ta te d cl early . M ajo r po in ts a re s u ppo rte d by a t le ast t w o ci ta tio n s f r o m th e r e adi ng/le ct ure ma te ria lT h rs . M ajo r po in ts a re s u ppo rte d by g o od exa mpl es o r th ou gh tfu l a n aly sis . A C hris tia n w orldv ie w o r bi blica l t h eme s a re in cl ude d as w ell. 1 6 (3 2.0 0% ) – 1 7 (3 4.0 0% ) M ost o f t h e co mpo nen ts o f t h e G ro u p Dis cu ssio n B oard Fo ru m prompt are a n sw ere d in t h e th re ad. Th e t h re ad has a lo gica l o w a n d in cl ude s a t le ast 2 50- 299 w ords . M ajo r po in ts a re s ta te d re aso n abl y. M ajo r po in ts a re s u ppo rte d by a t le ast o n e ci ta tio n fr o m th e re adi ng/le ct ure ma te ria ls . M ajo r po in ts a re s u ppo rte d by g o od exa mpl es o r t h ou gh tfu l an aly sis . A C hris tia n w orldv ie w o r bi blica l th eme s a re in cl ude d as w ell. 1 (2 .0 0% ) – 1 5 (3 0.0 0% ) Th e G ro u p Dis cu ssio n B oard Fo ru m prompt are a ddr esse d mi nima lly . T h e t h re ad la cks o w o r co nte n t. M ajo r po in ts a re u ncl ear o r co nfu sin g. M ajo r po in ts a re n ot su ppo rte d by e xa mpl es o r t h ou gh tfu l a n aly sis . N o ci ta tio n s a re u se d fr o m th e re adi ng/le ct ure ma te ria ls . T h e t h re ad is u nde r t h e co nte n t re qu ir e me nt ( 1 -2 49 w ords ). A C hris tia n w orldv ie w o r bi blica l th eme s a re n ot in cl ude d. 0 (0 .0 0% ) – 0 (0 .0 0% ) N ot pr ese n t Th rea d: G ra mmar an d Sp ellin g, A PA fo rm attin g 7 (1 4.0 0% ) – 8 (1 6.0 0% ) Spe llin g a n d gra mma r are co rre ct . S e n te n ce s are co mpl ete , cl ear, a n d co nci se . P ara gra ph s co nta in a ppr opr ia te ly v a rie d se n te n ce s tr u ct ure s. R efe re n ce s a re ci te d in cu rre n t A PA f o rma t. 5 (1 0.0 0% ) – 6 (1 2.0 0% ) Spe llin g a n d gra mma r has s o me e rro rs . S e n te n ce s a re pr ese n te d as w ell. P ara gra ph s co nta in s o me v a rie d se n te n ce str u ct ure s. W here a ppl ica ble, r e fe re n ce s are ci te d wit h n early a ccu ra te A PA fo rma ttin g. 1 (2 .0 0% ) – 4 (8 .0 0% ) Spe llin g a n d gra mma r erro rs di str a ct . Se n te n ce s a re in co mpl ete o r u ncl ear. P ara gra ph s a re po orly f o rme d. Where a ppl ica ble, r e fe re n ce s are mi nima lly o r n ot ci te d in cu rre n t A PA fo rma t. 0 (0 .0 0% ) – 0 (0 .0 0% ) N ot pr ese n t R ep lies : Co nten t 13 (2 6.0 0% ) – 1 5 (3 0.0 0% ) Tw o r e pl ie s mu st be pr ese n t. E ach r e pl y fo cu se s on a 10 (2 0.0 0% ) – 1 2 (2 4.0 0% ) Tw o r e pl ie s mu st be pr ese n t. E ach r e pl y fo cu se s on a 1 (2 .0 0% ) – 9 (1 8.0 0% ) At le ast o n e r e pl y mu st be pr ese n t. S o me re pl ie s fo cu son apo in t 0 (0 .0 0% ) – 0 (0 .0 0% ) N ot pr ese n t N am e:  D is cu ssio n B oard G ra d in g R ubric Exit G rid V iew Lis t V ie w   Adva nced P ro cien t Develo pin g No t P res ent fo cu se s o n a me an in gfu l po in t ma de in a n oth er s tu de nt’s o r pr ofe sso r’s t h re ad. Each r e pl y pr ovide s su bs ta n tiv e a ddi tio n al th ou gh ts r e ga rdi ng t h e th re ad an d in cl ude s 200-2 50 w ords o f co nte n t. E ach r e pl y t o a s tu de nt’s po st pr ovide s on e s tr e n gth a n d on e w eakn ess f o u nd in a n oth er s tu de nt’s o rig in al po st. E ach r e pl y is cl ear a n d co here n t an d in cl ude s a t le ast o n e ci ta tio n f r o m class ma te ria ls . fo cu se s o n a me an in gfu l po in t ma de in a n oth er s tu de nt’s t h re ad an d in cl ude s 150-1 99 w ords . M ost re pl ie s pr ovide s u bs ta n tiv e a ddi tio n al th ou gh ts r e ga rdi ng t h e th re ad an d an e xpl an atio n o f w hy t h e stu de nt like s o r di slike s th e ide a pr ese n te d in t h e t h re ad. On e str e n gth o r w eakn ess o f f e llo w s tu de nt’s t h re ads a re in cl ude d in t h e r e pl ie s. M ost re pl ie s a re cl ear a n d co here n t. L imi te d use o f co urs e ma te ria ls . re pl ie s f o cu s o n a po in t ma de in a n oth er stu de nt’s t h re ad. R epl ie s co uld be mo re s u bs ta n tiv e r e ga rdi ng th e t h re ad. Repl ie s la ck cl arit y a n d co here n ce . Str e n gth s a n d w eakn esse s o f f e llo w stu de nt’s t h re ads a re n ot in cl ude d in t h e re pl ie s. N o C ou rs e ma te ria ls a re in co rpo ra te d in t h e po st. R ep lies : G ra mmar an d Sp ellin g, A PA fo rm attin g 7 (1 4.0 0% ) – 7 (1 4.0 0% ) Spe llin g a n d gra mma r are co rre ct . S e n te n ce s are co mpl ete , cl ear, a n d co nci se . P ara gra ph s co nta in a ppr opr ia te ly v a rie d se n te n ce s tr u ct ure s. R efe re n ce s a re ci te d in cu rre n t A PA f o rma t. 5 (1 0.0 0% ) – 6 (1 2.0 0% ) Spe llin g a n d gra mma r has s o me e rro rs . S e n te n ce s a re pr ese n te d as w ell. P ara gra ph s co nta in s o me v a rie d se n te n ce str u ct ure s. W here a ppl ica ble, r e fe re n ce s are ci te d wit h s o me A PA f o rma ttin g. 1 (2 .0 0% ) – 4 (8 .0 0% ) Spe llin g a n d gra mma r erro rs di str a ct . Se n te n ce s a re in co mpl ete o r u ncl ear. P ara gra ph s a re po orly f o rme d. Where a ppl ica ble, r e fe re n ce s are mi nima lly o r n ot ci te d in cu rre n t A PA fo rma t. 0 (0 .0 0% ) – 0 (0 .0 0% ) N ot pr ese n t N am e: D is cu ssio n B oard G ra d in g R ubric Exit
Group Discussion Board Forum Instructions The purpose of these Group Discussion Board Forums is to expand your thinking about the course materials or apply course materials to counseling scenarios. So
Group Discussion Board Forum Instructions The purpose of these Group Discussion Board Forums is to expand your thinking about the course materials or apply course materials to counseling scenarios. Some of the discussion board questions have a strong analytical component, as fitting a graduate-level course. As a basis for your reflection/evaluation/application, you will be asked to review the content covered during the discussion module(s)/week(s). In fact, your thread as well as your replies to your classmates must be amply supported by course materials (the lectures and your textbook readings) and properly cited as indicated in the Group Discussion Board Forum Grading Rubric. In response to the discussion question (Modules/Weeks 2, 4, 6), submit your thread by the date specified using approximately 250–400 words. The grading rubric does not grade for word count. However, realize that too many words may indicate wordiness, but too few words may indicate incomplete thought. In addition to supporting your thread from course sources (with proper, current APA citation), the integration of a Christian worldview is always appropriate. It is also expected that you will include at least two references in every Discussion Board initial post. Use appropriate netiquette, Write at graduate level, and Cite in-text per current APA format and list references at the bottom of your post. It is expected that you will include at least one reference in every Discussion Board response post. When citing any of the presentations provided in the Reading & Study folders, your references must look like the following: Brewer, G., & Peters, C., (n.d.). [Insert audio lecture title or notes title]. Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University. So, for Module/Week 1, a reference would look like this (notice the proper use of APA form): Brewer, G., & Peters, C. (n.d.). COUC 506 Week Three, Lecture One: Christian spirituality and the ministry of counseling. [PowerPoint]. Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University Online. Topic: The New Christian Counseling Hawkins & Clinton: Chapter 4 Attachment and Relationships Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling McMinn:  Chapter 1 Religion in the Counseling Office Chapter 2 Toward Psychological and Spiritual Health https://biblia.com/api/plugins/embeddedpreview?resourceName=LLS:5DE4CF0C4A8F7F5A2CE6E885242A5294&historyButtons=false&layout=minimal&navigationBox=false&shareButton=false For discussion this module/week, we consider how to counsel suffering clients. The class lectures, Entwistle, and McMinn all discuss the concept of suffering and factors guiding how we counsel those who are suffering. In fact, a careful reading of the Reading & Study materials indicates numerous concepts and principles that we could apply as we counsel those who are hurting. Considering the numerous points that were made, make a list of at least 5 concepts (“questions to ask myself as I counsel those who are suffering. . . “) that you found particularly helpful, insightful, unique, or had not thought about before. What guidelines would you particularly emphasize as you counsel hurting people? Then consider this client’s statement: Client: “Dr. Counselor, I have been coming to you now for six weeks. I am not sure that counseling is working. I don’t feel any better now than when we started talking. Why are you not helping to remove this pain that I am feeling?” If your client expects that you help to remove the suffering, how would you respond, based on what you learned from your study for the week? Example How are my personal actions showing my trust and faith in Christ to work through me personally and professionally? How am I separating work and life balance to ensure I am taking care of myself to the best of my ability and in turn able to provide the best care to my clients? What can I do to continue developing my skills and knowledge to help my clients? How do my spiritual beliefs differ from my clients and can that affect our progress made in our sessions? Am I viewing my client’s situation with personal preservations or am I listening with an open heart and open mind? One guideline that I will particularly emphasize counseling those who are hurting is to always go back to two foundations, what my faith has taught me and what my education has taught me. “Science, then, became a venue of worship and praise. Moreover, science became a vocational calling that could produce tangible benefits to ease human suffering. The view of science as a sacred calling, however, was threatened by Darwinian theory” (Entwistle, 2015). A bible verse that stands out to me specifically when thinking about helping others who are suffering is Isaiah 43:2 which states, “When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and when you pass through the rivers, they will not sweep over you. When you walk through the fire, you will not be burned; the flames will not set you ablaze.” As Christians we carry each other’s burdens, as Christ carried our burdens. When receiving this statement from a client I am working with I would first reflect on the notes I have taken so far during our time together. I would reflect on the progress that has been reported so far from my client and remind them of the process not being a sprint to the finish line, rather a marathon. Pacing themselves for a long term goal to achieve success. I would also asked the client to reflect back on where they feel they have progressed, or what they would like to see differently at this point in our time together. Do they feel they are challenging themselves to step out of their comfort zone to make progress, or do they have hesitations limiting them to move forward. If appropriate with this client, I would pray with them or pray with them independently for guidance to help the client identify what they are missing from services at this time. Bibliography Entwistle, D. N. (2015). Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity An Introduction to Worldview Issues, Philosophical Foundations, and Models of Integration. Eugene: Cascade Books.
Group Discussion Board Forum Instructions The purpose of these Group Discussion Board Forums is to expand your thinking about the course materials or apply course materials to counseling scenarios. So
27 METAMORPH Integrative Christian Counseling Grid Dr. Guy R. Brewer (All Scripture references are based on New International Version translation of the Bible.) METAMORPH Integrative Christian Counseling Grid Key Domains/Issues in Integrative Christian Counseling Major Tenets/Counseling Theory Biblical References Spiritual Formation Principles Techniques and/or Strategies MIND Related areas: Cognition Thinking Reasoning/analytical skills Imagination Presuppositions Discernment Key Scripture: Ephesians 4: 17,18 “You must no longer live as the gentiles do in the futility of their thinking. They are darkened in their understanding and separated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardening of their hearts.” Spiritual formation tradition: Cognition, reasoning, and imagination are elements of human functioning that express the image of God. Counseling focuses on helping client become aware of habits of thought and the connection between self-deception, faulty thinking, and sin. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Identify cognitive distortions, faulty assumptions, and automatic negative self-talk. Adlerian: Reeducation of faulty thinking, gain access to private logic. Object Relations: Identify details/history of representations that feed client’s perceptions, attachments, and desires. Choice Theory: Help client become more aware and intentional about connection of thinking, actions, and self-perceptions. Gestalt: Enhance client awareness of perceptions and thought processes in the here and now. Proverbs 14:12: Self-deception and faulty thinking. Proverbs 23:7: Determinative power of human thinking. Isaiah 40:13, 14: Mind of God compared to human reasoning. Romans 8:6-8 Conversion produces qualitatively different thinking, “spiritual mind.” Romans 12:2: God uses transformation of thinking as an avenue to transform human life. Loving God with our whole minds is the primary goal of cognitive activity: Matt. 22:37-38 Human transformation follows a spiritual pattern that differs qualitatively from patterns of the world: Romans 12:2. The goal of cognitive therapy is to be an avenue for the working of the mind of Christ: 1 Cor. 2:11-16. Conversion to faith is movement from hostility toward God to hospitality in the peace of the Holy Spirit: Romans 8:5-8. Spiritual direction: Exploration of private thoughts and automatic self-talk in terms of habits of thought, presuppositions, worldly values, and attitudes. Use of memorized Scripture to teach spiritual foundations for Godly thinking and to replace faulty thoughts and perceptions. Use of journaling to explore ruminations and reactive patterns of thought. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Employ techniques and strategies such as Beck’s cognitive psychotherapy methods, cognitive and covert modeling, thought stopping, reframing, identification of cognitive distortions. Choice Theory: Use exploratory questions: “What do you want? What are you doing to get what you want? How is it working for you? Is it the right thing to be doing?” Adlerian: Therapy might include techniques such as active wondering, redirecting to identify and correct faulty perceptions and unrecognized thoughts. EMOTIONS Related areas: Feelings Affect Moods Perceptions Emotional memories Key Scripture: Jeremiah 17:10 “I, the Lord, search the heart and examine the mind, to reward a man according to his conduct, according to what his deeds deserve.” Spiritual formation tradition: Primary concern is for life of the heart that includes the arena of feelings and emotions. Counseling focuses on self-control and Avoidance of rash behavior. Counselor encourages client to be honest and take ownership for feelings while seeking the transformative power of the Holy Spirit in forging new ways to deal with feelings in a responsible manner. Rational Emotive Therapy: Assist client in identifying irrational beliefs, evaluations, perceptions and interpretations about what has happened to him/her. Gestalt: Affective awareness is primary. Counseling works toward integration of sensations and feelings with actions. Choice Theory: Explore connection of bad feelings with ineffective behavior. Affirm normal need for love, safety, and relationships. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Get in touch with feelings that are buried and unrecognized, particularly the role of automatic negative thoughts and cognitive distortions. Solution-focused: Help client identify feelings in the moment and set attainable goals for change in emotional response. Person-Centered Therapy: Provide client safe, trusting space to explore feelings. Deliverance from fear: Psalm 27:1, 34:4. Holy Spirit, source of peace: Romans 8:6 Prayer as a pathway to peace: Phil. 4:6,7. Antidote for anxiety: 1 Peter 5:7 Emotional stability comes from abiding in the Lord: John 15:3-5. Counselor as bringer of God’s comfort: Isaiah 40:1 Fruit of the Spirit includes emotional virtues: Galatians 5:22,23 Emotional foundations: You are God’s beloved. Matthew 3:17, John 15: 9 Peace is a gift of God acquired through discipline of steadfastness: Isaiah 26:3, Ephesians 6:13 Fearfulness is driven by alienation from God: 1 John 4:18. Jesus’ antidote for anxiety: (Matt. 6: 25-34) God’s point of view in assessing human functioning: 1 Samuel 16:7 Self-control and avoidance of rash behavior: Titus 2:1-6 Spiritual formation: Use of prayer and meditation in combination with talk therapy to explore damaged memories that need healing. Explore faulty spiritual beliefs, particularly beliefs about grace, salvation, and forgiveness behind feelings. Provide client with trusting relationship in which feelings can be honestly discussed, sin can be confessed, and grace can be experienced. Model self-control and help client develop a plan for dealing with moods and emotional patterns that are life disruptive. RET: Employ techniques such as modeling, negative imagery, future imaging, labeling, and role-playing intentional use of emotionally charged language to help client become more aware and in charge of feelings. Gestalt: Get client in touch with feelings by asking, “How do you feel about that?” Use dramatization and guided imagery to bring feelings into concrete awareness. CBT: Identify automatic negative thoughts and cognitive distortions and make a plan for change. Focus on manageability of feelings related to fears and anxieties. Solution-focused: Concentrate on here and now to identify emotional obstacles to change, select attainable goals, make a detailed plan. Person-Centered: Active listening and feedback in trusting environment of unconditional positive regard. TRANSFORMATIONAL GOALS Related Areas: Core self change Inside-out dynamics Redemption and Sanctification Purpose and meaning dimensions Assessment of client needs Overarching goals: What will this client look like if intervention is 100% effective? Key Scripture: Romans 12:1,2 “Therefore, I urge you, brothers, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God-this is your spiritual act of worship. Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind.” Spiritual formation tradition: Counseling is an inside-out, heart changing work of the Holy Spirit in which the spiritual counselor functions as a companion along the inner way. Counseling works toward reinvigorating the image of God within the person. Person-Centered: Counseling to clarify long-term goals and empower the client toward self-actualization of full potential. Rational-Emotive Therapy: Self-actualization of the client comes in the form of holistic self-understanding and functioning in which client consistently displays appropriate emotions and rational thinking. Choice Theory: Counseling is directed towards helping client understand legitimate needs and make life choices to meet those needs in a responsible, healthy way that is congruent with his/her beliefs. Object Relations: Counseling focuses on helping the client discover unconscious attachments, mental representations that drive feelings and behavior. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Counseling to help client change meaning making internal processes by identifying and correcting cognitive distortions, and faulty thinking. Gestalt Therapy: Counseling to help client gain freedom in the here and now from negative, unhealthy emotional patterns that shape meaning making. Created in the image of God: Genesis 1:26.27, 9:6 The right to become children of God: John 1:11 God’s power to do a new thing in life: Is. 43:18,19 New creation through reconciliation to God: 2Cor.5:16,17 Process of sanctification through focus on spiritual virtues and holy living: Philippians 4:8,9 Freedom from past guilt and bondage: Phil. 3:13,14 God has a specific purpose for each person: Ephesians 2:10 As children of God, our future is limited only by God’s vision. 1 Jn. 3:2,3 Transformation and the life of the heart: Lk. 6:43-45 Liberation through the anointing of the Holy Spirit: Isaiah 61:1-3 Luke 4: 16-21 Hope development principles: Romans 5:3-5 Healing power of confession of sin: James 5:16 Freedom in Christ: Galatians 5:1 Sufficiency of Grace: (2 Cor. 12:9) Living with the end in mind: I Cor. 15:50-58 Humble dependence on God: Proverbs 3:34 Spiritual formation tradition: Develop covenant with client for mutual encouragement and accountability for change. Intentionally work to develop atmosphere of hospitality in which the client is welcomed into safe space, is affirmed for gifts and potential, and is confronted with personal responsibility. Prayer, formative reading of the Bible, meditation, and journaling are key practices for discernment. Person-Centered: Therapeutic relationship is key. Counselor is empathic, genuine, and shows unconditional positive regard. RET: Work with client to reduce self-blame and self-defeating thoughts and feelings. Use repeated depth questions e.g. “Why is that?” “Then what?” to probe below layers of client resistance and/or denial. Choice: Follow grid of 8 systematic steps to build rapport, assess behavior, make a plan, get commitment, and hold client accountable. Object relations: Use interview and free association techniques to gain access to client’s inner world of perceptions, fears, beliefs, dreams, and wishes that reveal the inner representations that drive the way client shows up in the world. Cognitive Behavioral: Explore internal logic and cognitive distortions. Employ multimodal assessment e.g. Lazarus BASIC ID to gain holistic picture of impact of faulty thinking on client functioning. Gestalt: Help the client rebuild core values by integrating who the person was with who the person is now, including a new concept of self. Strategies might include confrontation, “what” and “how” questions, “I” statements, feeding a sentence, use of fantasy and guided imagery. ACTIONS Related areas: Behavior Habits Personal responsibility Sin nature Attachments Obsessions Lifestyle Key Scripture: Colossians 3:17 “And whatever you do, whether in word or deed, do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.” Spiritual formation tradition: Actions of Christian disciples are expressions of obedience to the Holy Spirit and teachings of Jesus. Counseling focuses on validating faith with faithful deeds. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Behavior is based on internal logic and beliefs about self, relationships, and past events. To help the client behave more effectively requires correction of negative self-talk and cognitive distortions. Choice Theory: Counselor collaborates with client to identify needed change and make a plan. Responsibility for change remains with the client. Rational Emotive Therapy: Counselor approaches need for client change holistically, helping client become aware of blocks to change arising from self-loathing, self-defeating outlook, and irrational beliefs. Person-Centered: Counselor is unconditional supportive partner to client to listen actively and provide feedback for client discovery of potential for change. Object relations: By helping client become aware of unconscious attachments and internal representations, counselor empowers client to better understand logic behind behavior and make conscious choices for change. Gestalt: Counselor confronts client’s self-defeating attitudes and behaviors and creates environment for here and now change. Solution-focused therapy: Counselor helps client identify effective strategies from past that can be used again to solve present problems while avoiding negative perspectives and/or problem analysis. Choose life: Deut. 30:19 Repentance leads to new life: Mark 1:15 Obedience leads to understanding God’s will: John 7:17 Romans 12:2 Grace and truth as basis for actions: John 1:17 Necessity of spiritual rebirth for qualitative change of life: John 3: 5-8 Obedience as the path of love and fulfillment: Jn. 14:23 Wisdom of obedience to Jesus’ teachings: Matthew 7:24-27 Faith requires right action: James 2:14-18 Godly lifestyle produces fruit: (Eph. 4:20-32) We are known by our fruit: Luke 6:43-45 We are saved by grace, not works: Ephesians 2:8,9 Spiritual formation: Focus on grace that produces fruit to correct works righteousness worldview or pharisaical errors. In encouragement and accountability, both grace and truth are at work. Provide an opportunity for client to confess sins. Cognitive Behavior: Assist client in identifying desired behavior change while carefully exploring internal logic and faulty thinking behind ineffective behavior. Person-Centered: Covenant with client for behavior change, assuming a role of encourager/coach to hold client accountable. Choice theory: Assist client in making a detailed plan for behavior change, including careful recordkeeping of baseline and behavior change. Rational-Emotive: Counselor uses techniques such as analogies, parables, metaphors, contradiction with cherished value, pragmatic disputes, semantic precision, and analysis of stories to help client discern irrational processes and self-destructive emotions. Object relations: Use free association and interview techniques to explore internal representations behind behavior. Gestalt: Use here and now techniques such as role-playing, “empty chair,” and guided imagery to clarify client’s perception of behavior. Confront blocks and relapses in behavior. MOTIVATIONS Related areas: Will Volitional life Conscience Attitudes Passions Motives Hope dynamics Authority Issues Key Scripture: Philippians 3:7 “But whatever was to my profit I now consider loss for the sake of Christ.” Spiritual formation tradition: Love of God, self, and neighbor is the primary motivation of the Christian disciple. Discipleship is a process of identifying our divided loyalties and increasingly opening our lives to experience God’s grace and love. Person-Centered: Humans are hard wired toward self-actualization and fulfillment of personal potential. Dysfunctionalities represent a short-circuiting of this natural process. Adlerian therapy: Motivating individuals to modify perceptions and internal beliefs that block personal effectiveness is a primary goal. Object Relations: Unconscious thoughts impact direction and motivation. The goal is the Reality Principle: to perceive relationships and one’s place in the world in realistic terms. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: By transforming emotions and self-perceptions, the client’s motivation for life is rebuilt and redirected. Solution-focused: The assumption is that people want to be motivated and want to change for the better. When this is not happening, the client is blocked by fear or lack of clarity about goals. Self-deception about motives: Prov. 16:2 God’s view of our motives: 1 Cor. 4:5 Priorities and passions: Col. 3:1,2 Double-mindedness as a character flaw demonstrated in mixed motives: James 1:6,7 Perseverance under trial fortifies resolve and motivation: Heb. 12:7-13 Role of hope in motivation and perseverance: Romans 5:3-5 Glorifying God as motive for life: Matthew 5:16 Love of God, self, and neighbor as great motive of life: Matt. 22:37-40 Impossibility of serving two masters: Matt. 6:24 Self-examination and personal growth: Lam. 3:40, Encouragement is a universal need and a gift of God: Romans 15:1-6 Conscience and the spiritual life: 2 Cor. 13:5 Spiritual attitude: Phil. 2:1-8 Fruit-bearing as spiritual motive for actions: John 15:8 Spiritual formation: Motivation for change and sanctification is directly proportional to depth of relationship with God. Role of counselor is to increase hunger and thirst for righteousness in client. Where moral failures occur, counselor provides confessor role, offers forgiveness, and encourages client to fresh start in grace. Counselor serves as encourager to spur client along in growth. Person-centered: Focus on client empowerment to take responsibility. Active listening for strengths on which to build motivation. Adlerian: Identification of client needs and assistance to client to make a plan to meet needs. Object relations: Focus on trust building, interviewing client to discover inner world of perceptions and representations that drive beliefs toward goal of inner healing. Cognitive behavior: Client must decide if she/he wants to change. Counselor helps client identify negative self-talk and cognitive distortions that create discouragement and thwart motivation. Solution-focused: Counseling focuses on goal seeking using techniques such as miracle question, nightmare question, externalizing and normalizing perceived problems. ORGANIC FACTORS Related issues: Body life Health issues Human sexuality Physiological/neurological processes Key scripture: Romans 12:1 “Therefore, I urge you, brothers, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God-this is your spiritual act of worship.” Spiritual formation tradition: Emphasize sacredness of the body in the image of God and as temple of the Holy Spirit. Counseling should assist client in honestly facing the temptations of carnal life and distinguishing normal human needs from lusts and covetousness. Person-centered: Emphasis upon holistic life and encouragement to client to develop attitudes and behavior to actualize goals without physical self-destruction. Adlerian therapy: Assist client in discerning self-perceptions including body image that produce shame and self-destructive behavior. Object relations: Developmental approach to help client understand how bodily perceptions, particularly attitudes toward sexuality, arose from early attachments and internal representations. Rational-emotive therapy: Exploration of client history to determine genetic predispositions for behavior. Physical examination by physician, Health background assessment, Cognitive testing Temple of the Holy Spirit: 1Cor.6:19,20 Self-love and appropriate love of your body: Eph. 5:29 Jesus’ example of rhythm of self-care: Mark 6:31 Disrespect of body as consequence of unbelief: Rom.1:21-25 Body life is a good gift from God: Genesis 1:26-28 Sexuality is a blessing that is sometimes misused: I Corinthians 6:12-18 Carnal life incompatible with Spiritual life: Romans 7:21-25 Contentment as antidote for lust and covetousness: Phil. 4:11-13 Sanctity of human body Healing and Wholeness in Christ (Lk. 7:22,23) Sabbatical principle of rest and restoration: Exodus 20:8-11 Spiritual formation: Affirm goodness of body life and encourage client in self-acceptance of body as a gift of God. Confront misuse of body through substance abuse, eating disorders, self-neglect by overwork, and sexual acting out. Explore with client how these acts demonstrate self-loathing and disobedience to God. Assist client in distinguishing needs from lusts and covetousness. Support client in learning attitudes of contentment. Person-centered: Counselor is affirming person who encourages client to love herself/himself, including acceptance and self-affirmation of body type. Adlerian: Focus on identifying and changing negative perceptions related to body image and negative self-mage that lead to destructive or neglectful behavior. Object relations: Assist client in bringing unconscious self-representations into conscious awareness while identifying aspects of representations that lead to self-destructive behavior. Rational-emotive: Use of imagery and role-playing to discover internal values about body, attractiveness, and personal worth. Partner with physician for assessment and monitoring of client’s physical health. RELATIONAL DYNAMICS Related areas: Family systems Support network Interpersonal skills Relational style Community life Therapeutic relationship Key scripture: “My command is this: Love each other as I have loved you. Greater love has no one than this, that he lay down his life for his friends.” John 15:12,13 Spiritual formation tradition: Explore with client ways in which he/she understands community and the need for healthy relationships. Build a hospitable therapeutic relationship in which the client feels safe and has the opportunity to grow. Explore Biblical models for family, friendship, and participation in the body of Christ. Adlerian therapy: Strengthening healthy relationships is key to healthy individual functioning. Explore client’s relational ecology to identify conflicted relationships and provide client guidance in building a healthier social environment. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Counselor is a key person in support system as collaborative partner in client change. Explore influences in relational network that impact client thinking and behavior. Object relations: Focus on past associations and attachments and their impact on the way client does relationships. Identify unconscious feelings of client that drive relationships. Therapist provides safe, trusting environment for exploration. Person-Centered Therapy: Identify client perceptions of conditional acceptance from others that foster incongruence. Explore ways that client defines his/her self-concept in others’ terms. Rational-Emotive therapy: Explore irrational beliefs and self-defeating outlooks that impact client relationships. Help client identify appropriate emotional patterns in healthy relationships. Therapist functions more as teacher and authority, not necessarily a source of affirmation. Behavior Therapy: Environment is key factor in behavior. Removing negative, destructive influences and enhancing positive, reinforcing relationships are vital steps. Clearly defined boundaries are necessary. Therapist insists that client maintain responsibility for behavior while serving as coach and collaborative partner. Systems Theory: Explore family and significant other relationships from the perspective of a contiguous, organic relational ecology of the client. Humans were created for relationship: Gen. 2:15-25 Friendship with God: Jn. 15:11-17 Spiritual principles for healthy family relationships: Eph.5:22-6:4 Children of God 1 John 3:2 Servanthood as key dynamic of friendship: John 13:13-17 Care of family commanded by God 1 Tim. 5:8 God’s command to honor parents: Deut. 5:16 Abiding in God is the basis of all relationships: John. 15:1-17 Necessity of forgiveness: Matt. 6:9-15 Reconciliation to God and others is the ministry of all Christians: 2 Cor. 5:16-20 Bear one another’s burdens: Galatians 6:2 Use of gifts and graces in Body life of community: 1 Cor. 12 Command to show hospitality to all: Romans 12:13, 1 Peter 4:9 Loving one another is the key dynamic behind all relationships: John 13:34, 35 Spiritual formation: Build relationship of trust and encouragement in which counselor can model grace and hospitality. Explore spiritual dynamics of relationships such as laying down your life for others, taking initiative vs. being reactive in relationships, principles of reconciliation and forgiveness. Adlerian: Use techniques such as role play, rehearsal of early recollections, outcome imagery (“How do you think this will work out?) To identify faulty patterns behind conflicted relationships and to help the client envision healthier relationships. Systems therapy: Map family history and relational ecology with client. Object relations: Using structured interview and free association, help client gain awareness of unconscious relational dynamics. Cognitive Behavior: Identify faulty thinking about relationships and automatic self-talk that defines roles and relational patterns. Techniques might include disarming questions, “I feel” statements, and Socratic dialogue. Person-centered: Active listening and feedback to client about client’s needs, feelings, and desires in relationships. Rational-Emotive: Using ABC theory, explore meaning client has attached to significant others and relationships in general. Identify elements of self-hostility and self-defeating attitudes in relationships. Detect and dispute irrational beliefs about relationships. PNEUMATIC ELEMENTS Related issues: Spiritual history Relationship with God Personal spirituality Faith tradition Formation tradition Church involvement Core values and moral reasoning Key Scripture: “Since we live by the Spirit, let us keep in step with the Spirit.” Galatians 5:25 Spiritual formation tradition: As a spiritual guide, counselor provides a safe environment for client to express faith, doubts, and fears about God and spiritual matters. Through a spiritual history and ecological mapping, counselor determines client’s past spiritual experiences, taking particular note of traumas and breakthroughs. The key dynamic is initiation of a process of a long-term spiritual exploration. Eclectic theory: Congruence requires that core values, behaviors, and feelings fit together. When they do not, a person is left with internal dissonance. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Spirituality related to cognitive processes relates to integrity issues. Counselor works to help client become aware of self-deceptions, distortions, and incongruent values. Person-Centered Therapy: Spirituality is viewed in individualistic, privatized terms. Help client become conscious of spiritual values and personal integrity issues. Rational-Emotive: Although RET recognizes only minimal value in religious involvement, spirituality is related to internal consistency of values, thinking, and feeling. RET sees each individual as responsible for own life philosophy. Systems Theory: Using systems principles, counselor may explore client history of church involvement, family religiosity, and personal spirituality. Power for living through the Holy Spirit: Zechariah 4:6 Spiritual growth through times of suffering: Romans 5:3-5 Life through the Spirit: Rom. 8:1-17 Holy Spirit, the Great Counselor: Jn. 14:16, 26 Spiritual perseverance: Heb. 12:1-3 Life in the Body of Christ: 1Cor.12:12-27 Spiritual Discernment (1 Cor. 2:10-15) “One anothering,” mutual love and encouragement: (Phil. 2:1-4) Purpose of spiritual gifts: (Eph. 2:11-13) Fruit of the Spirit: Galatians 5:22, 23 Spiritual Need for involvement in faith community: Hebrews 10:24, 25 Spiritual life vs. carnal life: Romans 7:21-25 God’s pattern of change, e.g. “mustard seed,” small beginnings: Matt. 13:31,32 Zechariah 4:10 Spiritual formation: Active listening and prayerful discernment. Identify flawed beliefs about God, Lead client in forgiveness for spiritual wounds. Use Spiritual temperament assessment, spiritual gifts inventories, and mapping of spiritual systems to discover patterns of spiritual growth, unhealed wounds, and persistent areas of struggle. Covenant with Christian clients for involvement in church and missions. Extend hospitality in both receptivity and loving confrontation of client. Eclectic theory: Values clarification work with client to identify core values. Cognitive Behavior: Active wondering and creative exploration of client talk and behavior for discovery of true values compared to stated values. Person-centered: Positively encourage client to move toward greater congruence in life. HISTORY Related issues: Developmental history Behavioral history Relational history Spiritual history Physical history Trauma history Spiritual formation tradition: Counselor offers client hope of redemption and certain future in Christ. Counseling may explore needs for forgiveness and reconciliation from the past as well as life lessons to be learned from past failure. Counselor offers grace for healing from guilt, shame, and condemnation. Gestalt: Focus on here and now, but identify historical maladjustments that need correcting. Choice: History viewed as attempts to satisfy 5 basic needs of survival. Look at history of coping techniques to evaluate effectiveness. Adlerian: Emotional development is learned behavior that can be better understood by examining relational history. Object relations: Developmental history is the primary dynamic to understand for effective therapy. Early childhood experiences deeply influence present perceptions and functioning. Cognitive Behavior therapy: Past environment has very large effect on behavior. Understanding environment, beliefs about environment, and perceptions are key to change. God’s sovereignty and care across our lives: Ps. 139:1-16 Life circumstances from a spiritual perspective: Rom. 8:31-39 New creation principles and inward life: 2Cor.4:16,5:17 God’s mercies new every day: Lam. 3:22, 23 Promises of eternal life: John 3:15,16 John 17:3 Newness in the Spirit 2 Cor. 5:17 God-given purpose and future Jer. 29:11 Healing of Memories Eph. 4:32 Admitting our sinful past and seeking God’s forgiveness: 1 John 1:9 Healing power of forgiveness: Mark 2:1-12 Freedom from guilt and shame about past: Phil. 3:12-14 Spiritual formation: Based on principles of grace and truth, help client accept responsibility for past history, accept and extend forgiveness, and learn from past errors. Counselor may emphasize new life in Christ and explore transformative process in client’s life. Where trauma is concerned, counselor may assist client in the process of spiritual healing of damaged memories. Gestalt: Use techniques such as role-play, directed dialogue, fantasy, and guided imagery to assist client in removing blocks from past and resolving internal conflicts. Object relations: Focus on recovery of early recollections for clarification and assessment of unconscious attachments and internal representations. Cognitive Behavior: Use techniques such as Socratic dialogue for intentional questioning to help client push past self-defeating thoughts and to identify irrational and distorted thoughts. Systems theory: Map family systems and client ecology. Bibliography James, Richard K. and Gilliland, Burl E. (2003). Theories and Strategies in Counseling And Psychotherapy. Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. Jones, Stanton, L. and Butman, Richard E. (1991). A Comprehensive Christian Appraisal: Modern Psychotherapies. Downer’s Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press. Nouwen, Henri, J.M. (2002). Ministry and Spirituality. New York, New York: Continuum. APPENDIX Rationale for METAMORPH Integrative Christian Counseling Grid METAMORPH integrative Christian counseling grid represents an eclectic approach to counseling that seeks to responsibly draw upon a plethora of counseling theories within the context of a Christian worldview. The following elements are foundational assumptions behind METAMORPH: Meta-theoretical foundation. As Jones and Butman point out, meta-theoretical eclecticism in counseling theory is superior to practical eclecticism because of the tendency for self-deception in counseling applications. In the absence of a coherent meta-theory, even well meaning and well trained therapist may find themselves in error in assuming that “what they do works” (390). As a meta-theory, METAMORPH relies upon insights into human functioning that come from spiritual formation and soul care tradition. As the name implies (metamorph is a transliteration of the Greek word for “transformation),” spiritual formation meta-theory views the process of human change as a “larger than” process. In METAMORPH meta-theory, the goal of counseling goes beyond incremental change or even success in worldly terms to hold out hope for a qualitative change in life through the power of the Holy Spirit. Redemptive view of humanity. METAMORPH assumes that no one is beyond redemption and that counseling is fundamentally a redemptive process. By this, I mean that the point of counseling is reconciliation and restoration of the person with Jesus Christ and with himself/herself. Holistic functioning. METAMORPH maps human functioning into nine domains that cover the span of human functioning. No area of human functioning is more important than another. Equally, METAMORPH acknowledges the interaction of areas of functioning and seeks to promote the internal and external integrity of the client. Inside-out and outside-in dynamics of counseling. METAMORPH relies upon the assumption of spiritual formation tradition that lasting change, and especially, transformation occur through a change of the core self. That is to say, transformation is always an “inside-out” pattern. However, METAMORPH also acknowledges the helpfulness of many counseling theories that employ an “outside-in” pattern of therapy. These methodologies serve as tools in the larger purpose of client transformation. Multi-tasking in counseling. The METAMORPH grid employs a multi-tasking methodology to assist the counselor in approaching client needs from a multiplicity of viewpoints and techniques. Servanthood. The purpose of the METAMORPH model is to serve the needs of clients. Theories on which the model draws are secondary to a diligent and careful assessment of client needs. Humility. METAMORPH assumes that all healing comes from God and that the Holy Spirit provides wisdom for life-changing counsel. This model also insists that the integrity of the counselor, including counselor self-awareness of limitations and sinfulness, is a key therapeutic dynamic.

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