I need this rough draft turned into a final research proposal. It needs to be formatted like this;
Introduction: Narcissism: The Effect of Narcissistic Parenting on Children’s Well-being
There must be six to seven double-spaced pages. I have provided a rough draft. Follow it and use the information from it to create the proposal. Use the references cited and add your own if you wish. No plageurism please or I will reject the paper.
I need this rough draft turned into a final research proposal. It needs to be formatted like this; Introduction: Narcissism: The Effect of Narcissistic Parenting on Children’s Well-being Literature r
0 Title of Your Essay Your First and Last Name Ashford University Course Code: Name of Course (e.g. ENG 122: English Composition II) Instructor Name Due Date Introduction Research involving children’s experiences of parental mental illness tends to focus primarily on adolescents and adults who were children of parents with bipolar disorder. Although some studies did report that children as young as five and six years were interviewed, these younger ages were under-represented compared to older age groups. Therefore, in being specific and focused on a single clinical presentation like bipolar disorder, this can advance the field by identifying issues that are unique to these families, and we can begin to understand how children experience different parental illnesses. With this knowledge and insight, services and interventions can be tailored to meet their distinctive needs. The present study is one of a kind and the first stage in this process. Narcissism, pathological self-absorption, was first identified as a mental disorder by physician Havelock Ellis, a British essayist. Narcissism can be defined as an inflated self-image and an addiction to fantasy, by an unusual composure and coolness disturbed when the confidence of the narcissist is threatened. The narcissist tends to take other people for granted or to exploit them. The mythical origin or a narcissist relates to the ancient figure Narcissus. Narcissus was a hunter from Thespiae in Boeotia and was known for his beauty. He was a proud person and many of those who loved him gave their lives devoted to his striking beauty. The gods sentenced Narcissus to “life without respect” when he rejected the attention of an admirer. A punishment was placed on him where he fell in love with his reflection when sitting at a pool of water and died hungering for a response. Like Narcissus, the narcissist only love” themselves, as reflected in the eyes of others. Sigmund Freud confirms narcissism as “a normal stage in child development,” but researchers consider it a mental disorder if it continues after puberty. The report claims there is a narcissist in all of us and pinpoints the similarities we all share with the narcissist behavior (Kluger, 2014). We will look at the cognitive development of a narcissist from early childhood, focusing on the child’s family connections and his or her relationship with daycare providers, doctors, mother and father, and peers in and out of a classroom environment. Scholarly articles from the Ashford Library will provide factual journal information that will validate our findings on the different areas of investigation. Literature Review It is critical to explain the understanding of what narcissism means and how to identify a narcissist disorder from list of other personally disorders. Campbell does just that by explaining the causes, diagnosis, and treatment opportunities for those suffering with a personality disorder like narcissism and the effect it has on the entire family if treatment is ignored (Campbell 2019). One of the key mediators was children’s knowledge and understanding of their parent’s mental illness, and the amount and level of knowledge and understanding influenced children’s perceptions of their parents and how it impacted on them as a child. This is an important issue as parents are often worried about discussing sensitive issues with their children and it is a common assumption that they can protect them by shielding them and not telling them about things. From the literature, the child’s perspective tells us that by not being informed and involved in family discussions, this actually has the opposite effect, often making children more worried, upset, confused and angry as they attempt to make sense of and adjust to their parents „different‟ moods and behavior. This is supported in the literature, where protecting children from factual information about mental illness was identified as a barrier preventing parents from discussing their illness. Children, however, state that they know something is wrong and shielding them causes more concern. Narcissists believe that they are exceptionally unique and essential. They fantasize about fame and attribute responsibility of their success to their uniqueness, always bragging and drawing attention to themselves. We will review how their decision-making process becomes rectified by a short-term interest in making reasonable and measured options that will satisfy their ego. Their failures are blamed totally on their counterparts, taking none upon themselves. The risk of becoming a narcissist can come from parenting styles that are overprotective or neglectful (Campbell,2004). Research on physical illness also supports this, suggesting that parents newly diagnosed with serious conditions find communicating the news to their children stressful (Barnes et al., 2000). For children not told about parental illness, for example cancer, they often draw meaning from observing changes within the family, their parent’s visits to surgeries and hospitals, and from their parent’s mood and facial expression (Bluebond-Langner, 1978). This is also supported by strong evidence that children are affected by changes in their parent’s facial expressions from early years of life and particularly by parental depression (Murray & Cooper, 2003). What was apparent from the review findings from parental mental illness and from physical illness research is that although children cannot be protected from adverse events, the quality of relationships and communication between family members are important for preventing longer term consequences (Birenbaum, Yancey, Phillips, Chand, & Huster, 1999). Methods: Design- The researcher chose to conduct a meta-synthesis, a relatively new technique for examining qualitative research (Jensen & Allen, 1996). It has been applied in diverse areas, for example experience of chronic illness (Thorne et a.l, 2002); diabetes (Campbell 129 et al., 2003); adaptation to motherhood (Beck, 2002); and midwifery care (Kennedy et al., 2003). Meta-synthesis is the most effective type of review for qualitative research and can deepen understanding of the contextual dimensions of healthcare (Walsh & Downe, 2004). In keeping with the ethos of qualitative research, as in the research study, the researcher decided that a review of qualitative research would be very appropriate and thought that a systematic or more narrative review would not have been as effective. Personally, for the researcher, a review of more quantitative research on psychopathology of children did not feel appropriate to sit alongside a study exploring children’s experiences, particularly as the aim was to explore positives as well as the negative aspects of having a parent with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Participants- The review identified 14 studies that reported experiences of 163 children and young people aged between 5 and 22 years from a range of countries. Parental diagnoses ranged from affective/mood disorders, to schizophrenia and personality disorder. Five major themes were identified which influenced children’s experiences: knowledge and understanding of parental mental illness; coping strategies and support; parent-child relationship; social, emotional and behavioral effects on the child; and the role of other people & society. Procedures/Measures- Data Analysis-2.1.3 – Qualitative Analysis When designing the study, the research team discussed the most appropriate forms of analysis. Given that this was a feasibility study in using IMS to explore younger children’s experiences, the research team were unsure of what to expect in terms of content and richness of data. The initial aim was to use Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to analyze the data, which aims to explore how people perceive their social situations and how they make sense of the world around them (Smith, 2008). IPA is thought to be very useful when people are dealing with complex and novel situations. (Smith, 2008). It was therefore deemed appropriate for this study. IPA was chosen over other analytic techniques such as grounded theory (Glaser, 1992; Strauss & Corbin, 1998) as the researcher’s supervisor at the time was a qualitative researcher very experienced in the use of IPA, and the initial aim was not to generate theory, but to gain insight into a unique group of children’s experiences, which has never been done before to the best of the research team’s knowledge. Narcissism: Its function in modulating self-conscious emotions. This article from the Ashford library was written by Uji, M., Nagata, T., & Kitamura, T. Dr. Uji is at the Department of Bioethics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Life Sciences. Mr. Nagata is at the Kyushu University of Nursing and Social Welfare. Dr. Kitamura is at the Kitamura Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo. This is an interesting study as it focuses on narcissism from a psychoanalysis point of view. Given the young age of the participants, if the data was not deemed rich enough to warrant the use of IPA, then thematic analysis (TA) was planned as an alternative qualitative analysis. After the first half of the interviews had been transcribed, the researcher met with the team to discuss the content of the interviews. Although some very interesting and insightful information had already been generated, the volume of data did not appear sufficient to conduct a detailed IPA, therefore the research team decided to proceed with TA. Results: Seventeen studies were retrieved which appeared relevant to the review. Of these, two were later excluded as they had a case study design, and the methods used to elicit information from the children were unclear, and one study was excluded as the emphasis was on children as their parent’s carriers. Of the 14 remaining studies, no more were excluded on the basis of the quality checklists. The quality of studies ranged from average to good and the reporting of key domains was variable across studies, particularly with regards to the type of qualitative analysis used. All 14 studies were rated A-C and deemed as robust and relevant to the review. As none of them were judged to be of poor quality with major flaws, all studies were treated equally in terms of their findings due to the acceptable level of methodological rigor. Ethical Issues- With the parent’s data, content analysis (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004) was chosen as the aim was to take the existing themes from the child data and look for specific reference to them in the parent interviews. Therefore, TA or other alternative analyses were not used as the researcher did not need to code the whole interviews and did not want to generate themes from the parent’s experience. Rather, it was to extract very specific information about their reference to their children and compare parent and child dialogue to illuminate the overall child experience. This was deemed very useful for all ages of child, especially the older ones (to compare their knowledge and awareness of their parents‟ bipolar disorder with what the parent actually discussed with them); and for the younger children who did not seem to be aware (to find out if the parent had ever discussed it with them and how they felt their illness impacted on their child). As exploration of the parent data was not an initial objective, the researcher considered the ethical implications of this, and gained ethical approval. Parents were also consulted and were asked to sign an opt-out form if they did not wish their data to be used in this way. None of the parents objected. With both analyses a careful balance was required, as it was not possible or desirable for the researcher not to assume a particular perspective; however it was also important to not input meaning that was not there (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). The researcher was aware of the sensitive nature of the research and took considerable efforts to ensure that the parents were informed about the research aims and that any concerns were addressed. Children were not informed initially that the aim was to research their parent’s bipolar disorder but were informed that the interview would involve exploring their experiences of general family life (which is what happened as facilitated by IMS). This was reflected in the information sheet and consent form intended for the children aged 7 and above. The researcher developed a narrative to explain IMS and the study to children aged 4-6 years (see Appendix 15). It was made clear that if children felt uncomfortable about any part of the interview, then IMS would move on to the next topic or discontinue if the child wanted to withdraw. This did not happen in any of the interviews, as the children enjoyed taking part, despite discussion of sensitive issues. The researcher was also aware of the power dynamic between the researcher and the child participants, and tried to overcome this by making the interview as collaborative as possible, and letting the child take the lead in operating the computer. Conclusion: Being raised by a narcissistic parent is emotionally and psychologically abusive and causes debilitating, long-lasting effects to children. It is often missed by professionals, because narcissists can be charming in their presentation, displaying an image of how they wish to be seen. Behind closed doors, the children feel the suffocation of self and struggle with loneliness and pain. The narcissist is not accountable for their own mistakes or behavior, so the child believes they are to blame and that they flunked childhood. Having worked as a mental health provider with thousands of children, as well as the adult children of narcissistic parents, I see the above symptoms again and again. The lifestyles differ, and the stories differ, but they all wave the same emotional banners. It’s quite a list. It takes serious recovery work to get better and feel better. If you are the other parent, or part of the extended family, and are trying to ward off the effects of a narcissistic parent, you will have double duty as the responsible one. The best approach is to parent with empathy — the antithesis of narcissism. If you are a divorce professional working with a case that involves a narcissist, help the kids by first really understanding the dynamics of this disorder. Don’t minimize it. Make sure the children are in therapy and are learning assertiveness skills to use with a parent who does not emotionally tune into them. Put the kids first. References Hill, P. L., & Roberts, B. W. (2012). Narcissism, well-being, and observer-rated personality Across the lifespan. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 216–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1948550611415867 Lancer, Darlene, JD, MFT, Toxic Relationships, Understanding the Mind of a Narcissist: (04-10, 2018). Psychology Today. Newman, M. (2016). Research Methods in Psychology (2nd Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Raskin. R. N., & Hall, C. S. (1979). A narcissistic personality inventory, Psychological Reports, 45, 590–590. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1240 Zang, R. (2017, October 17) How to Write a Research Proposal? Eleven things to include in a thesis proposal. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Narcissistic personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;669-672. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2085678377?accountid=32521 Campbell, J. (2019) ‘Narcissism (psychology)’, Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health. Available at: Ashford.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=93788109&site=eds-live&scope=site (Accessed: 15 March 2020). http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy- Campbell, W. Keith*, Goodie., Adam. S., &Foster. Joshua., D., (2004) Narcissism, Confidence, and Risk Attitude, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making: Oct.2004: 17.4: Psychology Database. Carlisle, John C. (1980) “The Culture of Narcissism,” Biographical by Christopher Lasch (1978) W.W. Norton and Company, New York. Pp. 268. Kluger. Jeffrey, (2014). The Narcissist in All of Us, Psychology Today pages 78-84. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/articles/201409/the-narcissist-in-all-us Uji, M., Nagata, T., & Kitamura, T. (2012). Narcissism: Its function in modulating self- conscious emotions. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 76(3), 211-34. doi:http://dx.doi.org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/101521bumc2012763211 Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #), pp–pp. http://doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher. Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of digital book. http://www.xxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book with DOI. https://doi:xxxxxxx Editor’s Last Name, Initials. (Ed.). (Publication Year). Title of anthology. Location: Publisher. Producer’s Last Name, Initials (Producer), & Director’s Last Name, Initials (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio. **For help formatting your reference page, please see our Formatting Your References List page.