Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.

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Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.

Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Assignment 1: The Interview Kirkland 13 Assignment 1: The Interview January 12, 2019 Research Question How do legal professionals describe their experiences with misinterpreted eye witness testimony? Type of Approach The phenomenological approach is a qualitative approach that captivates the human subjective experience. Additionally, the aim of phenomenological is to see things through the perspective of the people experiencing an event. It is essential for a greater emphasis to be placed upon the interpretation of experiences. Professionals and researchers take a critical position when it comes to qualitative studies in order to conquer resolutions based upon experiences (Davidsen, 2013). It is essential to capture details when it comes to dealing with lived experiences. Researchers have known to be hesitant to focus too intently on specific steps when it comes to the phenomenological approach. Field notes can be especially important in efforts to clarify the interview setting. Furthermore, it is exceptionally important to be communicate verbally and nonverbally during the interview setting in order to captivate the reality of the situation. Also, the phenomenological approach is an approach that entails a method that is associated with trial and error (Groenewald, 2004). It is essential to capture the core of the subjective experience when it comes to eye witness testimony because it is truely a subjective experience and should be approach as one. Additionally, it is important for the eye witness testimony studies to obtain the clarity of the experiences. There are so many misconceptions when it comes to the applicability of the subjective experience; this is why it is so important to be careful during the interviewing process. The phenomenological approach allows the interview questions to be conducted in a flow that is consistent with an opportune conversational flow; this conversational flow allows for a more in-depth approach (Dalby, 2007). Participant Recruitment There are many approaches that I would use during the recruitment process. Recruiting participants can be a challenging and daunting task and requires careful. I would start my talking to my family and acquittances. I would talk to them personally via telephone explaining that I am a conducting a research project and would like to have further assistance. Also, I would also use emails as a method of recruiting participants. Additionally, I would distribute flyers, and posters in efforts to recruit participants for my study. However, I would distribute flyers at my workplace as well as the community programs where I volunteer. However, it is important for participants for to meet the inclusion criteria without violating Walden University’s IRB requirements for selecting participants. Furthermore, it is best to communicate effectively when it comes to recruiting participants in efforts to selecting the right participant in order to carry out the intended purpose of the study. In order to prevent biases, it is imperative to be as objective and not implement personal opinions into the study. Invitation  I am conducting a study in order to develop my skills as a researcher. I am seeking out participants in order to gain a better understanding of the human experience by participating in a survey as well as interview questions in accordance with the topic of research I am conducting. The topic entails legal professionals and how they would describe their experiences with eye witness testimony that is misinterpreted. I am going to enclose all the necessary information in order for my participants to review in order to have a more beneficial study. I am seeking family, and acquaintances in order to participant as a part of my assignments. In addition to the invitation, I will send you an informed consent statement as well as the interview questions and surveys. This interview that is conducted in person, email, or by telephone. The whole interview should take no more than 90 minutes. The interview is subject to be an audio recording in order to capture for educational purposes. The deadline for this project is January 15, 2019. You are not in any way obligated to participate in this interview and there are not any risks involving if you choose to take part in this study.  IRB Verbatim Informed Consent for Practice Interviews  You are invited to take part in an interview for a research course that I am completing as part of my doctoral program.  The purpose of this interview is to help me hon by interviewing and data analysis skills.  Interview Procedures  I am requesting that your permit me to conduct an audio-recorded interview for about 60 minutes. Transcriptions of interviews will be analyzed as part of my course. Copies of your interview recording, and transcript are available from me upon request. Voluntary Nature of the Interview   The interview conducted is voluntary. If you decide to take part now, you can still change your mind later.  Risks and Benefits of Being Interviewed  Being in this interview, will not pose any risks beyond those typical of daily life. There is no benefit to you. Privacy  Interview Recordings and full transcripts will be shared with each interviewee, upon request. Transcripts with identifiers redacted will be shared with my university faculty along with my analysis.  The interview recording and transcript will be destroyed as soon as I have completed my course.  Contacts and Questions  If you want to talk privately about your rights as an interviewee, you can call Dr. Leilani Endicott. She is the University’s representative who can discuss this with you. Please share any questions or concerns you might have at this time. If you agree to be interviewed as described above, please reply to this email with the words, “I consent.” IRB Verbatim Informed Consent for Practice Interviews (PDF). Introductory Statement We are preparing to do an interview regarding the experiences that you had as a legal professional. It is important to conduct a pre-screening in order to adequately conduct the interview. The purpose of this interview is to capture the essence of the subjective experience by having legal professionals describe their experiences with misinterpreted eye witness testimony. This interview could be beneficial in allowing me to further develop my analysis skills. It is important to develop by analytical skills because I will be a greater asset to society by implementing social change. Interview Guide  1. What enjoyable moments have you had in your legal professional career? 2.  Based on the number of years you have been a legal professional, do you feel this has helped you understand the misinterpretation of eyewitness testimony? 3. Describe the types of situations you have encountered with the misinterpretation of eye witness testimony? 4. How has the lack of experience in an area hindered you from understanding the misinterpretation of testimony? 5.  Tell me about you were wrong regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? 6.  Tell me about how you were right regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? 7. Describe your legal experience when it comes to problems associated with eyewitness testimony regarding the inability to recall specific events of the crime? 8.  How would you describe the confidence level of eyewitness testimony that had proven weaknesses in their testimony regarding memory recall? 9. Describe how the eye witnesses demonstrated inconsistencies during cross-examination when it comes to how the eye witnesses recalls the events of the crime? 10. In your experiences as a legal professional, how would you describe intentional and unintentional representations of the recall of events when it comes to eye witness testimony? 11. In your experience, how would you describe the strengths and weaknesses regarding the accuracy of recalling the events of a crime? 12. Describe your experiences regarding how eye witnesses did not describe the criminal accurately in a lineup? 13. How would you describe the confidence level of the eye witnesses when a suspect is found to be wrongfully acquitted or wrongfully convicted? 14. What do you think are contributing factors that interferes with the eyewitnesses’ ability to accurately identify a suspect in a line up? 15. In your experiences, how would you describe experiences when the eyewitnesses’ testimony is not consistent to the person they identified in the line up? 16.  When conducting eyewitness interviews, how would you describe the setup of interview questions? 17.  In your experience, what are the routine questions that are generally conducted during the interview? 18. In your experience, how would you describe the effectiveness of the interview questions that are implemented from the eyewitnesses? 19.  In your experience, how would you describe the patterns that emerge from the interview questions from the eye witness in which you suspect deception is present? 20. Is there anything else you would like to add when it comes to your experiences with problems associated with eyewitness testimony? Potential Survey Questions  1. Are you male or female? 2. How old are you? 3. State your education 4. What is your area of area of expertise? 5. What is the specific title of your occupation as a legal professional? 6. How many years of experiences have you had as a legal professional? 7.  What types of crime are you most experienced in dealing with? 8. What would you consider your strengths in your legal professional experience? 9. What would you consider your weaknesses in your legal professional experience? Closing Statements Thanks for your participation in this interview. If there is anything that you would like to share, now is the time to do it.  I appreciate the answers that you have given today, and I will thoroughly go over the answers. Thank you for allowing me to interview you regarding your professional experiences. I believe this information will help be regarding the implementation of social change. Transcripts are available upon request. Please contact me by email or by phone if you have any further questions or concerns. Debriefing Statement Upon conclusion of the study, debriefing is required after the interviewing processed is ceased. Debriefing by peers is extremely important regarding the implementation and evaluation of the research process. Furthermore, it is important for feedback to be provided when it comes to the credibility and validity of the study. Additionally, it is important for the debiefer to review the collection process and concurrent data analysis. In order to conquer the debriefing process, it is important for the process to have subjectivity. Also, it is important for additional knowledge and skills to be applicable to the process in order to give appropriate constructive feedback (Spillet, 2003). References Dalby, J. T. (2007). On the Witness Stand: Learning the Courtroom Tango. Canadian Family Physician, 53 (1), 65-70. Davidsen A. S. (2013). Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 10(3), 318-339. Document: IRB Verbatim Informed Consent for Practice Interviews. (PDF). Groenewald, T. (2004). A Phenomenological Research Design Illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3 (1), 42-55. Spillet, M. (2003). Peer Debriefing: Who, What, When, Why, How. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 7 (3), 56-63.
Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Interview Guide Kirkland5 Interview Guide Rachel Kirkland January 6, 2019 Interview Guide Research Question: How do legal professionals describe their experiences with misinterpreted eye witness testimony? Type of Approach: Phenomenological Approach Interview Questions What enjoyable moments have you had in your legal professional career? Based on the number of years you have been a legal professional, do you feel this has helped you understand the misinterpretation of testimony? Based on your experiences, describe the types of situations have you encountered with the misinterpretation with eye witness testimony? How has the lack of experience in an area has hindered you from understanding the misinterpretation of testimony? Tell me about how you were wrong regarding the accuracy of eye witness testimony? Tell me about how you were right regarding the accuracy of eye witness testimony? Describe your legal experience when it comes to the problems associated with an eye witness regarding the inability to recall specific events of the crime? How would you describe the confidence level of eye witness that had proven weaknesses in their testimony regarding memory recall? Describe how the eye witnesses demonstrated inconsistencies during cross examination when it comes to how the eye witnesses recalls the events of the crime? In your experience as a legal professional, how would describe intentional and unintentional representations of the recall of events when it comes to eye witness testimony? In your experience, how would you describe the strengths and weaknesses regarding the accuracy of recalling the events of a crime? Describe your experiences regarding how eye witnesses did not describe the criminal accurately in a line up? How would you describe the confidence level of the eye witnesses when a suspect is found to be wrongfully acquitted or wrongfully convicted? What do you think are contributing factors that interferes with the eye witness’s ability to accurately identify a suspect in a line up? In your experience, how would you describe experiences when the eye witness’s testimony is not consistent to the person, they identified in line up? When conducting eye witness interviews, how would you describe the setup of the interview questions? In your experience, what are the routine questions that are generally conducted during interview questions? In your experience, how would you describe the effectiveness of the interview questions that are implemented from the eye witnesses? In your experience, how would you describe the patterns that emerge from the interview questions from the eye witness in which you suspect deception is present? Is there anything else that you would like to add when it comes to your experiences with problems associated with eye witness testimony? Potential Survey Questions Are you male or female? How old are you? State your education. What is the specific title of your occupation as a legal professional? How many years of experience of you had as a legal professional? What type of crime are you most experienced in dealing with? What is your area of expertise? What would you consider your strengths in your legal professional experience? What would you consider your weaknesses in your legal professional experience? Observation Notes: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Miscellaneous Notes: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ *Based upon the answers to the survey questions, the interview questions can be altered. In order to have an in-depth questioning, the interview process and questions are subject to change. As I understood, it is important not to have a predetermined set of questions that cannot be altered.
Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Research Problem, Purpose, Question, & Approach Kirkland 6 Research Problem, Purpose, Question, & Approach Advanced Qualitative Reasoning and Analysis Walden University Tiffany Kirkland December 29, 2018 Research Problem The research problem entailed in this particular study is the presence of misinterpreted eye witness testimony. The misinterpreted of eye witness testimony is one of the leading causes of wrongful convictions and wrongful acquittals. It is important to implement social change when it comes to the misinterpretation of eye witness testimony. In order to gather the appropriate information; in this case, the descriptions of the legal professionals can lead to helping prevent misinterpreted testimony by understanding their experiences. Research Purpose The purpose of the research is for legal professionals to describe their experiences in efforts to understand how eye witness testimony is misinterpreted. It is imperative to understand the errors that occur in eye witness testimony interpretation due to different reasons. However, it is a topic that needs to combated appropriately. The legal professional’s description of their experiences regarding what they have witnesses in their professional career. Additionally, this could lead to prevention of misinterpreted of eye witness testimony by finding the strengths and weaknesses of eye witness testimony. Research Question “How do legal professionals describe their experiences with misinterpreted eyewitness testimony experiences?”  Approach The phenomenological approach is the appropriate approach for this particular type of research study. The phenomenological approach is an approach that encompasses the human experiences. Additionally, it is important to consider emotionality, desire, and other factors. Furthermore, there are varying levels of perceptions regarding the subjective human experiences. Additionally, this approach is beneficial when it comes to trial and error (Groenewald, 2004). When describing the experiences of legal professionals, I believe that the phenomenological approach is appropriate in this regard. From a legal standpoint, it is important to capture a method that entails a trial and error type of approach. References Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1), 2-14.   6
Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Participant selection Instrumentation (choices and development) Procedures for recruitment, participation, and data collection Plan for data analysis Evaluation of trustworthiness Ethical procedures for protecting participants Audio Trail Notes Memo Notes Journaling
Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Abstract [Project Title] by [your official name] MA, [university], 20XX BS, [university], 20XX Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy [name of program] Walden University [last month of quarter you plan to graduate] 20XX Abstract Insert abstract here; it should be no more than one page. Abstract text must be double-spaced with no paragraph breaks. Describe the overall research problem being addressed in the first couple of sentences and indicate why it is important (e.g., who would care if the problem is solved). You can include a general introduction of the issue in the first sentence, but you need to move to a clear statement of the research problem being addressed. Identify the purpose and theoretical foundations, if appropriate, summarize the key research question(s), and briefly describe the overall research design, methods and data analytic procedures. Conclude with a (a) statement of reflection on what was learned and (b) statement on the implications for positive social change. Here are some form and style tips: (a) limit the abstract to one typed page; (b) maintain the scholarly language used throughout the Project; (c) keep the abstract concise, accurate, and readable; (d) use correct English; (e) ensure each sentence adds value to the reader’s understanding of the research; and (f) use the full name of any acronym and include the acronym in parentheses. Do not include references or citations in the abstract. Per APA style, unless at the start of a sentence, use numerals in the abstract, not written out numbers. For more guidance on writing this paragraph, consult the Abstract Primer (available at http://researchcenter.waldenu.edu/). [Project Title] by [your official name] MA, [university], 20XX BS, [university], 20X X Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy [name of program] Walden University [last month of quarter you plan to graduate] 20XX Tableof Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study (Level 0 Heading) 1 5 Chapter 2: Research Plan 4 5 Chapter 3: Summary and Reflections 5 5 List of Tables 7 List of Figures 8 Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study (Level 0Heading) 1 Level 1 Heading 1 APA Level 2Heading 1 Chapter 2: Literature Review 4 First Heading 4 Chapter 3: Research Method 5 First Heading 5 Chapter 4: Results 6 First Heading 6 Chapter 5: Discussion, Conclusions, andRecommendations 9 First Heading 9 References 10 Appendix A:Title of Appendix 12 Curriculum Vitae 13 Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study (Level 0 Heading) 1 Background Research Problem Purpose Statement Research Questions Conceptual or Theoretical Framework Chapter 2: Research Plan 4 Research Design Role of the Researcher Participant Selection Instrumentation Procedures for Data Collection 4 Data Analysis Plan Issues of Trustworthiness Chapter 3: Summary and Reflections 5 Introduction Reflection on Social Change Reflection on Course Learning Next Steps5 Use this table of contents (TOC) as an example of what one looks like. When it comes time for creating your own TOC, RIGHT CLICK anywhere in the Table of Contents, select UPDATE FIELD, then select UPDATE ENTIRE TABLE or UPDATE PAGE NUMBERS ONLY, and click OK. The table of contents will be generated using the style tags from the template; you will also be able to automatically update the TOC, both added headings and page numbers. List of Tables List of Figures Figure 1. Figure caption goes here xx The List of Figures is not set up to automatically update. If you have figures in your document, type them in manually here, following the example above. Alternately, follow these instructions, which will allow automatic updating of the List of Figures. Use the cursor to highlight the figure number and caption where they appear in the narrative chapters. (Figure 1. Figure caption.) Press Shift + Alt + the letter o). In the Mark Table of Contents Entry that comes up, you will see the figure information that you highlighted in the Entry box. Put A in the Table Identifier box. Put 1 in the Level box. Do not close the Mark Table of Contents Entry box. Work can be done while it is open. Continue to follow this protocol for all figures. You will see parenthetical entry field coding beside each figure caption when you have the formatting showing. Close Mark Table of Contents Entry box. Place your cursor on the List of Figures page in the TOC. Open the References tab. Left click Insert Tables of Figures. In the Table of Figures box that comes up, put a check in the “Show page numbers” and “Right align page numbers boxes.” Remove the check from the hyperlink box. Put dot leaders in the Tab leader box. Under General, format is “from template.” Caption label is “Figure.” Put a check in the “Include label and number” box. Go to Options. Remove check from “style” box. Put a check in the “Table entry fields” box. Put A in the Table identifier box. Click OK. Click OK again on initial Table of Figures box. The figures will appear on the List of Figures page. You may have to reformat the spacing and font. If the captions themselves change in the narrative, this whole process must be repeated. If only the page numbers change, do this: Left click to place the cursor anywhere on the figures mentioned on the List of Figures page.  Right click “Update field.” Place bullet in circle for option to update page numbers only. Left click OK. The page numbers will update automatically. Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study (Level 0 Heading ) Level 1 Heading Begin text here. APA Level 2 Heading Place your text here; when placing your cursor on this text,you will see in the style menu that this paragraph is tagged “Body Text.” That means it will automatically appear double-spaced with the first line indented, per Walden style. The sixth edition of the APA manualadvises two character spaces between sentences. Walden accepts either one or two spaces; either is acceptable, just be consistent. The text in this template has one character space between sentences. You can find the style menuin Microsoft Word 2007 or 2010 by clicking on the Home tab on the standard toolbar; Styles is one of the choices you will see. Click on the arrow icon on the right side of the Styles bar, and the drop-down menu of styles will appear. In Word 2003, look in the upper left corner of your screen,on the formatting toolbar,for the drop-down style menu. To apply this template’s formatting to the text of your paper, simply highlight the paragraph(s) or heading you want to format, and choose the appropriate tag from the style menu. The list of style tags includes all levels of headings, block quotes, table and figure captions, references, and body text. APA level 3heading. Text begins here . APA level 4 heading . Text begins here. The following is an example of a block quote: This is an example of a block quote. Now is the time to do the work that needs to be done. This is an example of a block quote. Now is the time to do the work that needs to be done. This is an example of a block quote. Now is the time to do the work that needs to be done. This is an example of a block quote. Now is the time to do the work that needs to be done. (Author, date, p. #) If you make a mistake and something changes that you did not want to change, in Word 2007 or 2010, either type Ctrl (Control key) z or, on the Quick Access toolbar, next to Save, click on the arrow icon for Undo. In Word 2003, go to Edit, Undo Typing. As you continue to develop your proposal andProjectin this template, use the instructions in Comments 9 to11 to add new headings and new text. For guidance on the content of sections of a proposal or Project, go to the Center for Research Quality website and look underthe ProjectEvaluation Tools documents, then choose the appropriate checklist, which outlines the contents of each chapter of the Project. For guidance on APA style rules, go to the Writing Center website, or consult the Form and Style sections of the Proposal and Project Guidebookat http://catalog.waldenu.edu/index.php or on the Center for Research Qualitywebsite. Chapter 2: Literature Review First Heading Insert the text of your literature review here. Report the literature in past tense, as in Jones (2003) argued, not Jones (2003) argues. Refer to the rubric for guidance on the content of sections in this chapter. Here are some additional tips for presenting data in vertical list form. In the body of your paper, use this format when presenting information as a vertical list. When the order of the items in the list is important, use a numbered list. Use a bulleted vertical list when you do not need to indicate a certain order or chronology. This is an example of a bulleted list. It follows the same format as for a numbered list, with the bullet point indented the same as a paragraph indent. Chapter 3: Research Method First Heading Discuss your research method here. Refer to the rubric for guidance on the content of sections in this chapter. Chapter 4: Results First Heading Present your results here. Refer to the rubric for guidance on the content of sections in this chapter. This is an example of a table in APA style (see Table 1). Table 1 A Sample Table Showing Correct Formatting Column A Column B Column C Column D Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Note . From “Attitudes Toward Project Editors,” by W. Student, 2008, Journal of Academic Optimism, 98, p. 11. Reprinted with permission. This is an example of a figure labeled per APA style. Note that the label is placed under the figure itself. As with tables, refer to the figure by number in the narrative text preceding the placement of the figure (see Figure 1). [place figure here] Figure 1. This is a sample of a figure caption. Follow these instructions to allow figure number and caption to update in the List of Figures. Use the cursor to highlight the figure number and caption. (Figure 1. Text.) Press Shift + Alt + the letter o). In the Mark Table of Contents Entry that comes up, you will see the figure information that you highlighted in the Entry box. Put A in the Table Identifier box. Put 1 in the Level box. Do not close the Mark Table of Contents Entry box. Work can be done while it is open. Continue to follow this protocol for all figures. You will see parenthetical entry field coding beside each figure caption. Close Mark Table of Contents Entry box. Place your cursor on the List of Figures page in the TOC. Open the References tab. Left click Insert Tables of Figures. In the Table of Figures box that comes up, put a check in the “Show page numbers” and “Right align page numbers boxes.” Remove the check from the hyperlink box. Put dot leaders in the Tab leader box. Under General, format is “from template.” Caption label is “Figure.” Put a check in the “Include label and number” box. Go to Options. Remove check from “style” box. Put a check in the “Table entry fields” box. Put A in the Table identifier box. Click OK. Click OK again on initial Table of Figures box. The figures will appear on the List of Tables page. You may have to reformat the spacing and font. If the captions themselves change, this whole process must be repeated. If only the page numbers change, do this: Left click to place the cursor anywhere on the figures mentioned on the List of Figures page.  Right click “Update field.” Place bullet in circle for option to update page numbers only. Left click OK. The page numbers will update automatically. Chapter 5: Discussion, Conclusions, andRecommendations First Heading Insert summary, conclusions, and recommendations here. Refer to the rubric for guidance on the content of sections in this chapter. References Insert References here. Examples of some common types of references follow; see APA 6.22and Chapter 7 for more details. These sample entries are tagged with the “APA Reference” style tag, which means the line spacing and hanging indent are automatic. Apply the “APA Reference” style tag to your entries. Pay special attention to italics, capitalization, and punctuation. The style tag does not govern those aspects of the entry. Periodical (journal) Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.(1994). Title of article.Title of Periodical,xx(x), xxx-xxx. Online periodical (journal) Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical,xx(x), xxx-xxx. doi: xxxxxx Nonperiodical (book) Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. City of Publication, ST: Publisher. Chapter in a book Author, A.A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Title of chapter. In A.Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). City, ST: Publisher. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association,Sixth Edition,Chapter 7,includesnumerous examples of reference list entries. For more information on references or APA style, consult the APAwebsiteor the Walden Writing Center website. Appendix A:Title of Appendix Insert appendix here. Appendices are ordered with letters rather than numbers. The appendices must adhere to the same margin specifications as the body of the Project. Photocopied or previously printed material may have to be shifted on the page or reduced in size to fit within the area bounded by the margins. If the only thing in an appendix is a table, the table title serves as the title of the appendix; no label is needed for the table itself. If you have text in addition to a table or tables in an appendix, label the table with the letter of the appendix (e.g., Table A1, Table A2, Table B1, and so on). These tables would be listed in the List of Tables at the end of the Table of Contents. If you include in an appendix any prepublished materials that are not in the public domain, you must also include permission to do so. Curriculum Vitae Include a copy of your curriculum vitae—your academic resume—here. The CV may be done in either basic outline form or full-sentence form. The CV must conform to the margin specifications of the rest of the document, be included in the pagination, and be listed in the TOC. Congratulations! This is the end of your Project! Be sure to delete this text!
Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Abstract Title page Abstract Title Page Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study Background Summarize literature from your prospectus, annotated bibliography and articles you found in this course that points to a gap in the research that is worthy of further study Research Problem State the research problem in terms of the gap in the research literature Frame the problem in terms of how further research could be of benefit Purpose Statement Use the template to present your statement that includes Target group/individual/organization/event of interest Phenomenon of interest Terminology that indicates the approach to be used Research Questions Conceptual or Theoretical Framework Present the framework that you have revised from your prospectus Chapter 2: Research Plan Research Design: Choice of Approach Describe the Phenomenon of Interest Description of Approach Rationale for Chosen Approach Role of the Researcher Reveal any personal and professional relationships you have with the participants State how biases will be managed Participant Selection Describe the target group of interest Describe the sampling strategy and ideal sample size (if you were to conduct this as a real study) Describe the criterion for sample selection (if you were to conduct this as a real study) Describe how participants were be contacted and invited for this effort Instrumentation The Interview Guide Describe the basis for development (literature, theory, personal experience) of the interview questions) Describe efforts to insure content validity and credibility Describe other data sources (e.g., journal, notes, video) Describe how and how Procedures for Data Collection. Please include a narrative of Where/how the data were collected Duration of data collection events How data were recorded How the participants were debriefed Ethical procedures to protect the participants during the recruiting, data collection and debriefing process. Data Analysis Plan Repeat the purpose and research question Describe the plan that best fits the chosen approach Describe examples of codes and categories you developed Describe considerations for choosing QDA software Issues of Trustworthiness For each dimension of trustworthiness describe (a) what you did [if anything]; and (b) what other strategies could be considered if this was your dissertation Credibility Transferability Dependability Confirmability Chapter 3: Summary and Reflections Introduction Restate research purpose and question Reflection on Social Change Discuss the relevance of your proposed research to Walden’s mission of social change Reflection on Course Learning Reflect on what was learned about conducting qualitative research Next Steps Consider your next steps in preparation for the dissertation References
Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Interview Transcripts Kirkland 19 Interview Transcripts Advanced Qualitative Reasoning and Analysis Walden University Tiffany Kirkland January 14, 2019 Transcript for Interview Date: 1-14-19 Time: 15:35-16:00 Length of Interview: 25 minutes. Phone Interview My name is Tiffany Kirkland and I am PhD student at Walden University. Thank you for volunteering to do this interview. I am very interested in your career as a legal professional and I want to know the experiences that you have had as a result. As you know, you are not obligated to this interview and you can stop this interview at any time. Let me know if you have any questions before we begin. Interviewer: What enjoyable moments have you had in your legal professional career? Interviewee: I have had many enjoyable moments. I love being a part of the legal team and working with clients from all walks of life. It is interesting to see people from different cultures and the way that their perspectives Interviewer: Based on the number of years you have been a legal professional, do you feel this has helped you understand the misinterpretation of eyewitness testimony? Interviewee: Yes. I believe that throughout my career, patterns start to emerge. You start to see things in a different perspective. It doesn’t matter the social status of the eyewitness and it doesn’t matter how dishonest the person may appear. Interviewer: Describe the types of situations you have encountered with the misinterpretation of eye witness testimony? Interviewee: Well, I have encountered many murder trials where the actual killers were framing people looked like the killer. I have also had many people that actually had a good depiction of what happened, yet their memory recall was inconsistent with scientific evidence. Interviewer: How has the lack of experience in an area hindered you from understanding the misinterpretation of testimony? Interviewee: Since my lack of experience in the drug arena, it is hard for me to understand the circumstantial evidence. I do not understand how people can perform illegal drug acts and are able to get away with it. Interviewer: Tell me about you were wrong regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? Well, one time I had a murder case. I was so sure that one of the family members did it. The eye witness testimony was inconsistent and there was a lot of scientific evidence that pointed to one of the family members. Turns, out it was an intruder that came from out of town was the person that actually committed the murder and it was discovered during cross-examination. Interviewer:  Tell me about how you were right regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? There was this theft case. During the testimony, the eye witness got the description wrong of the parking lot where the theft occurred. However, I knew it was just the eye witness being nervous on the stand. So, I decided to take a different approach and I started asking questions that made it easier to pinpoint how the event really occurred; therefore, prompting her memory. It was really a matter of strong intuition combined with the evidence and the testimony of others. Interviewer: Describe your legal experience when it comes to problems associated with eyewitness testimony regarding the inability to recall specific events of the crime? Interviewee: Well, I have had a lot of experiences with people unable to recall information. I have found that the majority of people tend to forget specific details, yet they are able to remember the central event. I also have found that people that have been through certain crimes, whether it be that they were the victim or someone that witnessed the crime, have a tendency to repress memories. Interviewer: How would you describe the confidence level of eyewitness testimony that had proven weaknesses in their testimony regarding memory recall? Interviewee: Well, you get a wide range of confidence levels in this line of work. You can have eye witnesses that are confident, yet their testimony is completely inaccurate. You can also have someone that doesn’t appear confident and the testimony is completely accurate. So, the lesson here is you cannot always go by confidence level. Interviewer: How would you describe the confidence level of the eye witnesses when a suspect is found to be wrongfully acquitted or wrongfully convicted? Interviewee: Well, it depends on the level of their confidence. Some people face extreme guilt when it comes to the role that their testimony played during the trial and then you have people who feel very satisfied with the outcome because they knew they were right. Generally speaking, you have a wide range of emotions and confidence levels that is demonstrated during legal proceedings. Interviewer: Describe how the eye witnesses demonstrated inconsistencies during cross-examination when it comes to how the eye witnesses recalls the events of the crime? Interviewee: During cross examination, you can usually pinpoint inconsistencies. When attorneys start to question what the eye witness has said, you tend to find out that the testimony has holes in it that it is not consistent with the evidence presented. Interviewer: In your experiences as a legal professional, how would you describe intentional and unintentional representations of the recall of events when it comes to eye witness testimony? Interviewee: Well, some people lie on the stand; this is true most definitely. However, there are people that don’t recall the events correctly of the crime; of course, this is usually unintentional. However, the eye witness doesn’t not always realize that the eye witness testimony is inaccurate. So, it is true that it is all about perspective in that regard. However, this can be discovered during cross-examination and generally the eye witness is pretty appalled by this particular revolution. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the strengths and weaknesses regarding the accuracy of recalling the events of a crime? Interviewee: Well, there are many strengths and weaknesses when it comes to the accuracy of eye witness testimony. As I said before, people generally recall the central event instead of the minute details; this often can be looked upon as a weakness or a strength, depending on the context. People often times incorporate biases into the eye witness testimony. People can have past issues that often because part of their testimony; this happens in more of a subconscious manner. Also, you have people that do not have an issue with reason and logic and don’t incorporate any particular biasedness into their testimony, yielding more accurate results. Interviewer: Describe your experiences regarding how eye witnesses did not describe the criminal accurately in a lineup? Interviewee: Well, there have been several incidences where the eye witness has confused criminals with each other. In my experience, most of the time people often accuse people that are similar in appearances; however, this is not always the case. There are people who mistake people because they didn’t have a good look at their face yet found distinguishing markers that they thought properly identified the criminal. However, it turns out they were wrong; this is especially true when it comes to identifiers such as tattoos or jewelry. Interviewer: What do you think are contributing factors that interferes with the eyewitnesses’s ability to accurately identify a suspect in a line up? Interviewee: I would say being too confident or being not confident enough would be contributing factors. I would also have to say that confusion that is brought on by stress of the incident or stress from just being an eye witness and knowing that they have to testify against someone. Often times eye witnesses have this impending fear that the person that they testify against is going to come back and try to seek retaliation on them. Interviewer: In your experiences, how would you describe experiences when the eyewitnesses’s testimony is not consistent to the person they identified in the line up? Interviewee: In my experience, this does not happen very often. Usually, this comes up later in the trial that the eye witness testimony is not consistent with the identification of the suspect in a line up. Also, it is important to understand that there are many expert witnesses that presents information to the jury. Generally speaking, the jury has a tendency to believe expert witnesses. Interviewer: When conducting eyewitness interviews, how would you describe the setup of interview questions? Interviewee: I would say that these questions vary depending on who is presenting the questions. Usually, it is important to present the questions in an organized manner and is generally based upon the subject matter.  Interviewer: In your experience, what are the routine questions that are generally conducted during the interview? Interviewee: Well, that depends on the type of crime that has taken place. However, the intent of the questions is to get a background of the eye witness in order they are stable enough to stand trial. Also, other questions may include if they know enough about the crime in order to present information to the courtroom. In my experience, some people claim that they were the eye witness and it turns out they weren’t close enough to present any substantial evidence. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the effectiveness of the interview questions that are implemented from the eyewitnesses? Interviewee: In my opinion, they are pretty effective. However, not many things are one-hundred percent effective. If the questions are conducted efficiently and the eye witness answers them honestly, it increases the effectiveness of the questions. We are then able to pinpoint if the eye witness would be effective in identifying the suspect or if they eye witness had enough information to present to the court. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the patterns that emerge from the interview questions from the eye witness in which you suspect deception is present? Interviewee: The patterns that emerge usually present themselves as inconsistencies in their statements. You can also tell when there are contradictions in their testimony, especially when contradictions exist when the information is coupled with scientific evidence. Deception often happens accidently, or someone is trying to cover up for another person. So, there are many different avenues of deception; it is important to consider many factors before you actually can say that a person is being deceptive. Interviewer: Is there anything else you would like to add when it comes to your experiences with problems associated with eyewitness testimony? Interviewee: I would say that when it comes to eye witness testimony, it is important to consider everything and never assume anything. Even if something appears to be true or appears to be false, you never can be too careful. Also, it is important to understand that each situation is unique in various ways and just because a pattern emerges does not necessarily make the eye witness testimony as accurate as it seems. When it comes to research, there should be more information out there for new and upcoming legal personnel. End of Interview. Time: 16:00. Interview # 2 Date: January 14, 2019 Time: 19:30-19:50 Time Lapsed: 20 minutes Transcript for Phone Interview Interviewer: What enjoyable moments have you had in your legal professional career? Interviewee: The enjoyable moments I have is when justice is served. Sadly, the criminal justice system is not perfect and it still has many flaws that need to be addressed. Interviewer: Based on the number of years you have been a legal professional, do you feel this has helped you understand the misinterpretation of eyewitness testimony? Interviewee: Yes, I have. I feel like I have gained experience and I have witnessed many things as years go by. I have often times wondered how testimony can get misconstrued, even when the eye witness has the best intentions. However, the brain is a very powerful thing. Sanjay Gupta did a very interesting segment on CNN regarding memory. It is a very interesting thing to watch. I have discovered things about my own memory watching that segment. Even if you are more self-aware, people can still find themselves not recalling the events as they occurred. Interviewer: Describe the types of situations you have encountered with the misinterpretation of eye witness testimony? Interviewee: Where do I begin? Usually, you have misinterpreted testimony when the person on the witness stand displays a confident testimony. You also have to consider that someone people are so confident that there is an arrogance in a way. Also, there are times during cases that people actually talk themselves out of the truth and into a lie. In my experience, you often have to match up the information you can prove with the eye witness testimony and then you have to see where you stand. Interviewer: How has the lack of experience in an area hindered you from understanding the misinterpretation of testimony? Interviewee: Well, I am not experienced in murder cases and often times that is a challenge. People don’t realize that murders usually don’t come right out and confess to a murder. So, reliance on the eye witness is pretty intense in that regard. You generally have a forensic expert pointing in a specific direction. I have a difficult time with the details from the eye witness and combining the information given by the forensic expert. Interviewer: Tell me about you were wrong regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? I have several incidents in terms of being wrong with the accuracy eyewitness testimony. I had a rape case and it involved two people. However, at the time of the eyewitness testimony there was only confirmation of one alleged rapist. The eye witness kept insisting that there was another person involved. I was basing my facts around past experiences that generally when people are raped it is either a solo act or there was a gang rape incident that happened. However, the eye witness only could recall the events of one person; the surveillance footage confirmed that two people were responsible. Interviewer:  Tell me about how you were right regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? I was working a murder case and even though I am not good at murder cases, I had a very good instinct about this particular case. There was a person that was poisoned and the person that testified as an eye witness said that there was no way that the person on trial could have, they were out of town that particular day. However, I knew the surveillance tapes must have been tampered when I took in account all information that was presented. Later, it was discovered that it was actually the eye witness who had tampered with the surveillance tape. Interviewer: Describe your legal experience when it comes to problems associated with eyewitness testimony regarding the inability to recall specific events of the crime? Interviewee: In my career, I have had many experiences when it comes to the inability to recall information. There have been eye witnesses that have been confused and disoriented, hindering their ability to comprehend the crime that occurred. Also, there have been times where they couldn’t recall the events on a timeline. They also have a difficult time describing the event in any extreme detail and when they get to where they believe they recall information, they often have discrepancies in their description. Interviewer: How would you describe the confidence level of eyewitness testimony that had proven weaknesses in their testimony regarding memory recall? Interviewee: Well, weaknesses in the testimony have a wide range of confidence levels. It is very hard to determine accuracy based on a confidence level. There are many factors that can affect confidence levels; this includes stress, depression, and other physical and mental ailments. Sometimes eye witness tend to put together puzzles pieces that never really fit to begin with, so naturally there will be errors. Interviewer: How would you describe the confidence level of the eye witnesses when a suspect is found to be wrongfully acquitted or wrongfully convicted? Interviewee: I have discovered their confidence level seems very strong right before the verdict is read. It seems that the exhume a high amount of confidence in instances such as wrongful convictions and wrongly acquittals. However, this is not always the case. Interviewer: Describe how the eye witnesses demonstrated inconsistencies during cross-examination when it comes to how the eye witnesses recalls the events of the crime? Interviewee: There are many things that takes place during cross-examination. What is found during cross examination usually consists of the unraveling of flaws and a new look at information that may have elements of contradictions. Interviewer: In your experiences as a legal professional, how would you describe intentional and unintentional representations of the recall of events when it comes to eye witness testimony? Interviewee: There is different presentations of intentional and unintentional representations in terms of eye witness testimony. When someone is being deceitful, it usually is detected through body language and word usage, just to name a couple. When someone is unintentional, it usually has a different presentation, such as a consistent thought process and the having some sort of stability to the conversation. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the strengths and weaknesses regarding the accuracy of recalling the events of a crime? Interviewee: Well, that is an award-winning question. The strengths usually contain consistency and the weakness usually contains “plots” or “holes” in the testimony, so to speak. It has been my experience that jury does not capture all of the possible weaknesses and strengths of the testimony; that is where further clarification is needed, typically during cross-examination. Interviewer: Describe your experiences regarding how eye witnesses did not describe the criminal accurately in a lineup? Interviewee: In my experience, this usually consists of accidental mistaken identity. It is very difficult to tell what kind of stressors that people have in their lives that may play a vital role when it comes to identification of a suspect. However, you do have cases where the person chosen in a lineup is completely different from the actual criminal. It is important for people to be aware that each Interviewer: What do you think are contributing factors that interferes with the eyewitnesses’s ability to accurately identify a suspect in a line up? Interviewee: As I stated, it could be a number of different factors that contribute to this particular issue. Stress, depression, PTSD, and just because they did not get a good enough look at the person that actually committed the crime. Interviewer: In your experiences, how would you describe experiences when the eyewitnesses’s testimony is not consistent to the person they identified in the line up? Interviewee: That is a complex situation. It is very important to examine all the evidence, whether it be circumstantial or scientific. If the suspect is not accurately identified in a lineup, then there is an exceptionally longer trial. Inaccuracy of any type in a courtroom can lead to many dead ends and loop holes for attorneys to jump through. Interviewer: When conducting eyewitness interviews, how would you describe the setup of interview questions? Interviewee: The interview questions and just general trial questions that are generally standard straight off the cuff. However, the questions are generally put in place in order to understand the eye witnesses a little better. It is good to have a background of the person in order to have a good representation of where the eye witness is best suited during the trial.  Interviewer: In your experience, what are the routine questions that are generally conducted during the interview? Interviewee: Well, generally anything that points to their background. We ask them their background, their relationship the suspect, and their whereabouts regarding the crime. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the effectiveness of the interview questions that are implemented from the eyewitnesses? Interviewee: They are pretty effective, actually. We have a better understanding of how the eye witness can give us the best information possible. Evidently, it depends on the topic at hand as well and it depends on the detail that is used. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the patterns that emerge from the interview questions from the eye witness in which you suspect deception is present? Interviewee: That are many patterns that happen when deception is present. You definitely can tell that is loose information that is not pieced together appropriately. You can also have to take in consideration other factors, such as the inability to keep up with their story. Interviewer: Is there anything else you would like to add when it comes to your experiences with problems associated with eyewitness testimony? Interviewee: I would like to add that each case is different. So, any information is subject to change, depending on the subject matter. Yet, it all boils down to honesty and the ability to see through information and the ability to recognize what is inconsistent and what is not. Legal professionals definitely see patterns over a period of time and have a tendency to be street smart. End of Interview.
Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Interview Transcripts Kirkland 19 Interview Transcripts Transcript for Interview Date: 1-14-19 Time: 15:35-16:00 Length of Interview: 25 minutes. Phone Interview Thank you for volunteering to do this interview. I am very interested in your career as a legal professional and I want to know the experiences that you have had as a result. As you know, you are not obligated to this interview and you can stop this interview at any time. Let me know if you have any questions before we begin. Interviewer: What enjoyable moments have you had in your legal professional career? Interviewee: I have had many enjoyable moments. I love being a part of the legal team and working with clients from all walks of life. It is interesting to see people from different cultures and the way that their perspectives Interviewer: Based on the number of years you have been a legal professional, do you feel this has helped you understand the misinterpretation of eyewitness testimony? Interviewee: Yes. I believe that throughout my career, patterns start to emerge. You start to see things in a different perspective. It doesn’t matter the social status of the eyewitness and it doesn’t matter how dishonest the person may appear. Interviewer: Describe the types of situations you have encountered with the misinterpretation of eye witness testimony? Interviewee: Well, I have encountered many murder trials where the actual killers were framing people looked like the killer. I have also had many people that actually had a good depiction of what happened, yet their memory recall was inconsistent with scientific evidence. Interviewer: How has the lack of experience in an area hindered you from understanding the misinterpretation of testimony? Interviewee: Since my lack of experience in the drug arena, it is hard for me to understand the circumstantial evidence. I do not understand how people can perform illegal drug acts and are able to get away with it. Interviewer: Tell me about you were wrong regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? Well, one time I had a murder case. I was so sure that one of the family members did it. The eye witness testimony was inconsistent and there was a lot of scientific evidence that pointed to one of the family members. Turns, out it was an intruder that came from out of town was the person that actually committed the murder and it was discovered during cross-examination. Interviewer:  Tell me about how you were right regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? There was this theft case. During the testimony, the eye witness got the description wrong of the parking lot where the theft occurred. However, I knew it was just the eye witness being nervous on the stand. So, I decided to take a different approach and I started asking questions that made it easier to pinpoint how the event really occurred; therefore, prompting her memory. It was really a matter of strong intuition combined with the evidence and the testimony of others. Interviewer: Describe your legal experience when it comes to problems associated with eyewitness testimony regarding the inability to recall specific events of the crime? Interviewee: Well, I have had a lot of experiences with people unable to recall information. I have found that the majority of people tend to forget specific details, yet they are able to remember the central event. I also have found that people that have been through certain crimes, whether it be that they were the victim or someone that witnessed the crime, have a tendency to repress memories. Interviewer: How would you describe the confidence level of eyewitness testimony that had proven weaknesses in their testimony regarding memory recall? Interviewee: Well, you get a wide range of confidence levels in this line of work. You can have eye witnesses that are confident, yet their testimony is completely inaccurate. You can also have someone that doesn’t appear confident and the testimony is completely accurate. So, the lesson here is you cannot always go by confidence level. Interviewer: How would you describe the confidence level of the eye witnesses when a suspect is found to be wrongfully acquitted or wrongfully convicted? Interviewee: Well, it depends on the level of their confidence. Some people face extreme guilt when it comes to the role that their testimony played during the trial and then you have people who feel very satisfied with the outcome because they knew they were right. Generally speaking, you have a wide range of emotions and confidence levels that is demonstrated during legal proceedings. Interviewer: Describe how the eye witnesses demonstrated inconsistencies during cross-examination when it comes to how the eye witnesses recalls the events of the crime? Interviewee: During cross examination, you can usually pinpoint inconsistencies. When attorneys start to question what the eye witness has said, you tend to find out that the testimony has holes in it that it is not consistent with the evidence presented. Interviewer: In your experiences as a legal professional, how would you describe intentional and unintentional representations of the recall of events when it comes to eye witness testimony? Interviewee: Well, some people lie on the stand; this is true most definitely. However, there are people that don’t recall the events correctly of the crime; of course, this is usually unintentional. However, the eye witness doesn’t not always realize that the eye witness testimony is inaccurate. So, it is true that it is all about perspective in that regard. However, this can be discovered during cross-examination and generally the eye witness is pretty appalled by this particular revolution. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the strengths and weaknesses regarding the accuracy of recalling the events of a crime? Interviewee: Well, there are many strengths and weaknesses when it comes to the accuracy of eye witness testimony. As I said before, people generally recall the central event instead of the minute details; this often can be looked upon as a weakness or a strength, depending on the context. People often times incorporate biases into the eye witness testimony. People can have past issues that often because part of their testimony; this happens in more of a subconscious manner. Also, you have people that do not have an issue with reason and logic and don’t incorporate any particular biasedness into their testimony, yielding more accurate results. Interviewer: Describe your experiences regarding how eye witnesses did not describe the criminal accurately in a lineup? Interviewee: Well, there have been several incidences where the eye witness has confused criminals with each other. In my experience, most of the time people often accuse people that are similar in appearances; however, this is not always the case. There are people who mistake people because they didn’t have a good look at their face yet found distinguishing markers that they thought properly identified the criminal. However, it turns out they were wrong; this is especially true when it comes to identifiers such as tattoos or jewelry. Interviewer: What do you think are contributing factors that interferes with the eyewitnesses’s ability to accurately identify a suspect in a line up? Interviewee: I would say being too confident or being not confident enough would be contributing factors. I would also have to say that confusion that is brought on by stress of the incident or stress from just being an eye witness and knowing that they have to testify against someone. Often times eye witnesses have this impending fear that the person that they testify against is going to come back and try to seek retaliation on them. Interviewer: In your experiences, how would you describe experiences when the eyewitnesses’s testimony is not consistent to the person they identified in the line up? Interviewee: In my experience, this does not happen very often. Usually, this comes up later in the trial that the eye witness testimony is not consistent with the identification of the suspect in a line up. Also, it is important to understand that there are many expert witnesses that presents information to the jury. Generally speaking, the jury has a tendency to believe expert witnesses. Interviewer: When conducting eyewitness interviews, how would you describe the setup of interview questions? Interviewee: I would say that these questions vary depending on who is presenting the questions. Usually, it is important to present the questions in an organized manner and is generally based upon the subject matter.  Interviewer: In your experience, what are the routine questions that are generally conducted during the interview? Interviewee: Well, that depends on the type of crime that has taken place. However, the intent of the questions is to get a background of the eye witness in order they are stable enough to stand trial. Also, other questions may include if they know enough about the crime in order to present information to the courtroom. In my experience, some people claim that they were the eye witness and it turns out they weren’t close enough to present any substantial evidence. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the effectiveness of the interview questions that are implemented from the eyewitnesses? Interviewee: In my opinion, they are pretty effective. However, not many things are one-hundred percent effective. If the questions are conducted efficiently and the eye witness answers them honestly, it increases the effectiveness of the questions. We are then able to pinpoint if the eye witness would be effective in identifying the suspect or if they eye witness had enough information to present to the court. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the patterns that emerge from the interview questions from the eye witness in which you suspect deception is present? Interviewee: The patterns that emerge usually present themselves as inconsistencies in their statements. You can also tell when there are contradictions in their testimony, especially when contradictions exist when the information is coupled with scientific evidence. Deception often happens accidently, or someone is trying to cover up for another person. So, there are many different avenues of deception; it is important to consider many factors before you actually can say that a person is being deceptive. Interviewer: Is there anything else you would like to add when it comes to your experiences with problems associated with eyewitness testimony? Interviewee: I would say that when it comes to eye witness testimony, it is important to consider everything and never assume anything. Even if something appears to be true or appears to be false, you never can be too careful. Also, it is important to understand that each situation is unique in various ways and just because a pattern emerges does not necessarily make the eye witness testimony as accurate as it seems. When it comes to research, there should be more information out there for new and upcoming legal personnel. End of Interview. Time: 16:00. Interview # 2 Date: January 14, 2019 Time: 19:30-19:50 Time Lapsed: 20 minutes Transcript for Phone Interview Interviewer: What enjoyable moments have you had in your legal professional career? Interviewee: The enjoyable moments I have is when justice is served. Sadly, the criminal justice system is not perfect and it still has many flaws that need to be addressed. Interviewer: Based on the number of years you have been a legal professional, do you feel this has helped you understand the misinterpretation of eyewitness testimony? Interviewee: Yes, I have. I feel like I have gained experience and I have witnessed many things as years go by. I have often times wondered how testimony can get misconstrued, even when the eye witness has the best intentions. However, the brain is a very powerful thing. Sanjay Gupta did a very interesting segment on CNN regarding memory. It is a very interesting thing to watch. I have discovered things about my own memory watching that segment. Even if you are more self-aware, people can still find themselves not recalling the events as they occurred. Interviewer: Describe the types of situations you have encountered with the misinterpretation of eye witness testimony? Interviewee: Where do I begin? Usually, you have misinterpreted testimony when the person on the witness stand displays a confident testimony. You also have to consider that someone people are so confident that there is an arrogance in a way. Also, there are times during cases that people actually talk themselves out of the truth and into a lie. In my experience, you often have to match up the information you can prove with the eye witness testimony and then you have to see where you stand. Interviewer: How has the lack of experience in an area hindered you from understanding the misinterpretation of testimony? Interviewee: Well, I am not experienced in murder cases and often times that is a challenge. People don’t realize that murders usually don’t come right out and confess to a murder. So, reliance on the eye witness is pretty intense in that regard. You generally have a forensic expert pointing in a specific direction. I have a difficult time with the details from the eye witness and combining the information given by the forensic expert. Interviewer: Tell me about you were wrong regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? I have several incidents in terms of being wrong with the accuracy eyewitness testimony. I had a rape case and it involved two people. However, at the time of the eyewitness testimony there was only confirmation of one alleged rapist. The eye witness kept insisting that there was another person involved. I was basing my facts around past experiences that generally when people are raped it is either a solo act or there was a gang rape incident that happened. However, the eye witness only could recall the events of one person; the surveillance footage confirmed that two people were responsible. Interviewer:  Tell me about how you were right regarding the accuracy of eyewitness testimony? I was working a murder case and even though I am not good at murder cases, I had a very good instinct about this particular case. There was a person that was poisoned and the person that testified as an eye witness said that there was no way that the person on trial could have, they were out of town that particular day. However, I knew the surveillance tapes must have been tampered when I took in account all information that was presented. Later, it was discovered that it was actually the eye witness who had tampered with the surveillance tape. Interviewer: Describe your legal experience when it comes to problems associated with eyewitness testimony regarding the inability to recall specific events of the crime? Interviewee: In my career, I have had many experiences when it comes to the inability to recall information. There have been eye witnesses that have been confused and disoriented, hindering their ability to comprehend the crime that occurred. Also, there have been times where they couldn’t recall the events on a timeline. They also have a difficult time describing the event in any extreme detail and when they get to where they believe they recall information, they often have discrepancies in their description. Interviewer: How would you describe the confidence level of eyewitness testimony that had proven weaknesses in their testimony regarding memory recall? Interviewee: Well, weaknesses in the testimony have a wide range of confidence levels. It is very hard to determine accuracy based on a confidence level. There are many factors that can affect confidence levels; this includes stress, depression, and other physical and mental ailments. Sometimes eye witness tend to put together puzzles pieces that never really fit to begin with, so naturally there will be errors. Interviewer: How would you describe the confidence level of the eye witnesses when a suspect is found to be wrongfully acquitted or wrongfully convicted? Interviewee: I have discovered their confidence level seems very strong right before the verdict is read. It seems that the exhume a high amount of confidence in instances such as wrongful convictions and wrongly acquittals. However, this is not always the case. Interviewer: Describe how the eye witnesses demonstrated inconsistencies during cross-examination when it comes to how the eye witnesses recalls the events of the crime? Interviewee: There are many things that takes place during cross-examination. What is found during cross examination usually consists of the unraveling of flaws and a new look at information that may have elements of contradictions. Interviewer: In your experiences as a legal professional, how would you describe intentional and unintentional representations of the recall of events when it comes to eye witness testimony? Interviewee: There is different presentations of intentional and unintentional representations in terms of eye witness testimony. When someone is being deceitful, it usually is detected through body language and word usage, just to name a couple. When someone is unintentional, it usually has a different presentation, such as a consistent thought process and the having some sort of stability to the conversation. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the strengths and weaknesses regarding the accuracy of recalling the events of a crime? Interviewee: Well, that is an award-winning question. The strengths usually contain consistency and the weakness usually contains “plots” or “holes” in the testimony, so to speak. It has been my experience that jury does not capture all of the possible weaknesses and strengths of the testimony; that is where further clarification is needed, typically during cross-examination. Interviewer: Describe your experiences regarding how eye witnesses did not describe the criminal accurately in a lineup? Interviewee: In my experience, this usually consists of accidental mistaken identity. It is very difficult to tell what kind of stressors that people have in their lives that may play a vital role when it comes to identification of a suspect. However, you do have cases where the person chosen in a lineup is completely different from the actual criminal. It is important for people to be aware that each Interviewer: What do you think are contributing factors that interferes with the eyewitnesses’s ability to accurately identify a suspect in a line up? Interviewee: As I stated, it could be a number of different factors that contribute to this particular issue. Stress, depression, PTSD, and just because they did not get a good enough look at the person that actually committed the crime. Interviewer: In your experiences, how would you describe experiences when the eyewitnesses’s testimony is not consistent to the person they identified in the line up? Interviewee: That is a complex situation. It is very important to examine all the evidence, whether it be circumstantial or scientific. If the suspect is not accurately identified in a lineup, then there is an exceptionally longer trial. Inaccuracy of any type in a courtroom can lead to many dead ends and loop holes for attorneys to jump through. Interviewer: When conducting eyewitness interviews, how would you describe the setup of interview questions? Interviewee: The interview questions and just general trial questions that are generally standard straight off the cuff. However, the questions are generally put in place in order to understand the eye witnesses a little better. It is good to have a background of the person in order to have a good representation of where the eye witness is best suited during the trial.  Interviewer: In your experience, what are the routine questions that are generally conducted during the interview? Interviewee: Well, generally anything that points to their background. We ask them their background, their relationship the suspect, and their whereabouts regarding the crime. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the effectiveness of the interview questions that are implemented from the eyewitnesses? Interviewee: They are pretty effective, actually. We have a better understanding of how the eye witness can give us the best information possible. Evidently, it depends on the topic at hand as well and it depends on the detail that is used. Interviewer: In your experience, how would you describe the patterns that emerge from the interview questions from the eye witness in which you suspect deception is present? Interviewee: That are many patterns that happen when deception is present. You definitely can tell that is loose information that is not pieced together appropriately. You can also have to take in consideration other factors, such as the inability to keep up with their story. Interviewer: Is there anything else you would like to add when it comes to your experiences with problems associated with eyewitness testimony? Interviewee: I would like to add that each case is different. So, any information is subject to change, depending on the subject matter. Yet, it all boils down to honesty and the ability to see through information and the ability to recognize what is inconsistent and what is not. Legal professionals definitely see patterns over a period of time and have a tendency to be street smart. End of Interview.
Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Main Discussion Post-Week 5  Research Question & Phenomena of Interest  How do legal professionals describe their experiences with misinterpreted eye witness testimony? The phenomena of interest is understanding the misinterpretations regarding eye witness testimony based on the experiences of legal professionals. After avid research regarding eye witness testimony, misinterpretations have lead to wrongful convictions and wrongful acquittals. In order to implement the appropriate social change, I have embarked upon a mission to change the way the criminal justice system views eye witness testimony. Criteria for Inclusion and Exclusion The inclusion criteria for a study regarding eye witness testimony should me a male or a female and they have to be a legal professional. This particular studies focuses on legal professionals opposed to jurors because the basis for this study is to describes the experiences of the legal professionals. According to Wise, Sartori, Magnussen, & Safer (2014), it is important to take note of all the people included as legal personnel. The judges, defense attorneys, prosecutors, and law officers. Additionally, it is important to take into consideration of the people that would be benefical to the study in terms of eye witness testimony. In my opinion, it is important to specify the number of years that the legal professional has been in practice in efforts to see if experience is a factor regarding the knowledge of eye witness testimony. Additionally, it is important for the criteria to be a legal professionals that have seen a wide range of crimes; this includes murder, theft, etc. Additionally, I feel that the success rate of winning a legal proceeding is irrelevant when it comes to this particular study because it is not feasible to the study because the reason for the success may or may not be due to the interpretation of eye witness testimony.  Sample Size, Data Saturation, and Theoretical Saturation   The sample size is very important when it comes to qualitative research. The sample size in qualitative research is smaller than the quantitative research. Some scholars and researchers alike may argue about the the important of sample size when it comes to data saturation. Since data saturation is defined by the data collection process and the lack of new or relevant data. Additionally, theoretical saturation is important because it is the phase of data analysis and all concepts are developed into theories. According to recommendations, twenty-five to thirty participants is the minimum required in order to teach data saturation. When conducting in depth studies, it is ideal to meet more than the minimum requirements. Furthermore, theoretical saturation is optimal when there is a specific goal in mind to satisfy the requirements for change. Also, data collection should be exhausted because all of the relevant data should be statisfied  (Dworkin, 2012). In my opinion, there should be an adequate enough sample size in order to combat the study of eye witness testimony. It may take a larger sample than thirty participants in order to reach data saturation in order to determine how legal professionals describe their experiences. When it comes to reaching data saturation, the researcher has to be sure that the investigative process is a thorough process. Additionally, it is important to develop theoretical saturation in efforts to implement better policies and procedures in accordance with an acceptable theory for the sake of social change. In my opinion, there should be a large amount of data in order to achieve optimal results. Also, the phenomenological approach is subjective and it is important for knowledge to be extensively collected, analyzed, etc. When it comes to this particular study, it would be more feasible to conduct interviews, surveys, and observation in order to gather information that is indicative of the human experience. According to Wise, Sartori, Magnussen, & Safer (2014), the legal professionals and the jurors were extensivey surveyed and the number of participants were large in number in order accurately depict the knowledge and skills of each personnel in order to carry out the intended purposes of the study. Additionally, this particular study also implemented safeguards in order to allow people a solution to the errors associated with eye witness testimony. The study was extremely detailed and the extent of the data saturation was more than adequate enough to carry out the intended purposes of the study. Additionally, errors were able to be identified by emerging patterns due to the data saturation that was achieved by utilizing a larger sample size. In this study, there were many data collection methods utlized; this includes interviews, observations, and surveys. Assurances  There are many things when considering the privacy of participants. I would ensure that they do not have to reveal details of the case that would incriminate them or their career without compromising the results of the study. Furthermore, it is imperative for the participants to voice any concerns and allow them to ask questions in terms of the study and the consent process. The core components of the study should be reviewed with the participants as well so that the participants will know what to expect in order for them to gather the full effect of the criteria and expectations of the study. According to Kaiser (2009),  deductive disclosure is extremely important when it comes to the participants in research study, also referred to as internal confidentiality. It is important to have this type of confidentiality is important because information that is disclosed can lead to identifiable traits of the participant. The data collection process should also be conducted in a cautious manner as well while still maintaining the integrity of the study. Furthermore, it is imperative that participants are ensured of their privacy and are given the opportunity to understand the study extensively.                                                     References  Dworkin, S. (2012). Sample Size Policy for Qualitative Studies Using In-Depth Interviews. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(6), 1319-1320. Kaiser, K. (2009). Protecting Respondent Confidentiality in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Health Research, 19 (11), 1632-41.  Wise, R.A., Sartori, G., Magnussen, S., & Safer, M.A. (2014). An Examination of the Causes and Solutions to Eye Witness Errors. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5 (1), 102.
Must be an expert in qualitative research. No exceptions. Work has been done, just have to proofread and make adjustments accordingly.
Transcribing The first interview conducted was transcribed manually; a transcription service was not utilized. Memo notes were also conducted. Due to the fact that the interview was a phone interview, the observations of body language and nonverbal cues were not documented. However, occurences throughout the interview was conducted in the notes; this includes information on word usage, pauses during the interview, etc.  The transcribing process was ensured for accuracy and was validated by a third party. During this interview, the weaknesses and strengths were thoroughly examined. Also, the potential for error was also conducted. According to Davidson (2009), transcription is a selective process in efforts to conquer goals, including theoretical  goals. The lack of adequate transcription often is associated with the lack of documented empirical accounts.  It is imperative to address the data collected in terms of analytical standpoint. Summative Technique   Upon conducting the interview, it is imperative to review the transcription process, the interview itself, and the notes conducting during the interview. It is important to capture the interview and review the process from an in-depth perspective. Additionally, it is important to go through a reflective process in efforts to capture the core of the intended purpose. Summative assessments can generally be conducted. It is imperative to understand that a important component of the process is to find where patterns emerge after gathering all the essential data gathered  (Taras, 2008). During this process, the transcription process was manually conducted and the core of the topic was captured.  During the interview process, both interviewees expressed their experiences based regarding the misinterpretation of eye witness testimony. It was concluded that the experiences they had were similar in many instances as well as differences being ultimately noted. The questions that were successful were the ones that entailed a more detailed account. It was concluded that signs occur when deception is present. Additionally, it is important to note the interviewees had similar experiences when it comes to cross-examination and the ability to pinpoint discrepancies  of the eye witness testimony. Also, it is important to note that it is always important to make sure that the testimony being compared with the circumstantial coupled with scientific evidence. Furthermore, it was established that memory can play a vital role when it comes to eye witness testimony in terms of accuracy and reliability. It is known that the misinterpreted of eye witness testimony can lead to wrongful convictions and wrongful acquitals, as stated in previous research. The interview reflected that is essential for the legal professionals to thoroughly understand the benefits of testimony interpretation. Patterns were subsequently noted in terms of the interview. Furthermore, the interviews confirmed the concern for reliability of eye witness testimony and the opportunities presented in order to understand the fallibility of eye witness testimony. The conduction of my interview was to establish the experiences of legal professionals and to closely mimic the actual experiences as close as possible for the efforts of training purposes. In my opinion, I believe that the essential information was gathered, reaching saturation regarding training purposes. However, I believe that thick rich descriptions was limited during this particular interview. I believe that enough information was gathered in order to carry out the intended purposes of the interview in terms of training purposes. In order to improve the quality of the interview, there should have been more elaboration, more detail, etc. I believe that I established adequate rapport by starting off asking questions that brought the participant joy and induce the conversation into a more conversational flow. The interview was mainly a neutral conversation, yet there are some components that initiate some probbing and later had some elaboration regarding some questions. However, I believe the interivew “fell short” at times due to the participant not being specific enough during some questions. The approach that brought me closer during the interview where the questions started off with “Describe your experiences…..” These questions entailed the descriptions of strengths and weaknesses, memory recall, and confidence levels. Furthermore, there were questions that prompted the participant to expand on details of memory recall and alleged criminal identifications. Upon comparing the interviews, patterns did emerge and was documented in the journal notes accordingly.                                                          References Davidson, C. (2009). Transcription: Imperatives for Qualitative Research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8 (2), 35-52. Taras, M. (2008). Summative and Formative Assessment.  Perceptions and Realities. Active Learning in Higher Education,  (9) (2), 172-192

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