Answer each question in a minimum of 100 words each. Use correct spelling and grammar. Cite sources as necessary.
Psychological thought has evolved from philosophical inquiry to scientific research. In your own words, describe the value of different perspectives in the field and the need for the subdivisions you read about in Lesson 1.
Psychological thought has evolved from philosophical inquiry to scientific research. Describe the value of different perspectives in the field and the need for the subdivisions in your own words
2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.2 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-02.shtml 1/8 M o d u le 1 .2 : H is t o r y o f P s y c h o lo g y The earliest psychologists that w e know about are the G reek philosophers Plato (428–347 BC) and Aristotle (384–322 BC). These philosophers asked m any of the sam e questions that today’s psychologists ask; for instance, they questioned the distinction betw een nature and nurture and the existence of free w ill. In term s of the form er, Plato argued on the nature side, believing that certain kinds of know ledge are innate or inborn, w hereas Aristotle w as m ore on the nurture side, believing that each child is born as an “em pty slate” (in Latin a tabula rasa) and that know ledge is prim arily acquired through learning and experience (Introducing Psychology, 2012). French philosopher René D escartes (1596–1650) also considered the issue of free w ill, arguing in its favor and believing that the m ind controls the body through the pineal gland in the brain (an idea that m ade som e sense at the tim e but w as later proved incorrect). D escartes also believed in the existence of innate natural abilities. A scientist as w ell as a philosopher, D escartes dissected anim als and w as am ong the ﬁrst to understand that the nerves controlled the m uscles. H e also addressed the relationship betw een m ind (the m ental aspects of life) and body (the physical aspects of life). D escartes believed in the principle of dualism : that the m ind is fundam entally different from the m echanical body. O ther European philosophers, including Thom as H obbes (1588–1679), John Locke (1632–1704), and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778), also w eighed in on these issues. E a rly S c h o o ls o f P s y c h o lo g y G radually in the m id-1800s, the scientiﬁc ﬁeld of psychology gained its independence from philosophy w hen researchers developed laboratories to exam ine and test hum an sensations and perceptions using scientiﬁc m ethods. The ﬁrst tw o prom inent research psychologists w ere the G erm an psychologist W ilhelm W undt (1832–1920), w ho developed the ﬁrst psychology laboratory in Leipzig, G erm any in 1879, and the Am erican psychologist W illiam Jam es (1842–1910), w ho founded an Am erican psychology laboratory at H arvard U niversity. U se the slideshow below to read about the early schools of psychological thought, beginning in the 19th century and continuing to contem porary tim es. Click the arrow s to m ove from one school of thought to the next. Access an accessible copy of this slideshow Print This Page Stru ctu ralism 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.2 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-02.shtml 2/8 T im e lin e – E a rly M o d e rn a n d M o d e rn E ra Below is a tim eline listing various dates. The dates are birth years for several notable psychologists. Click a year to reveal the nam e of a notable psychologist and his or her school of thought, an interesting fact, or w hat he or she is fam ous for. Access an accessible copy of this slideshow Date Psychologist(s) Description 428 – 347 O riginated in the early 19th century and is no longer an active school of psychological thought. Im portant ﬁgures in structuralism include W ilhelm W undt (pictured at right) and Edw ard B. Titchener. Structuralism used introspection (or internal perception) to observe the m ind and identify the basic elem ents or “structure” of psychological experiences, such as reaction tim e betw een seeing a light ﬂash and pushing a button in response to that stim ulus. In W undt’s experim ents, trained observers experienced an external stim ulus, then im m ediately observed and reported their reactions. The experim ent w as designed so that the stim ulus w as repeatable and w ould alw ays produce the sam e reaction, elim inating “interpretation” in the reports of the subjects. D espite W undt’s efforts to train his subjects, the process rem ained highly subjective. 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.2 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-02.shtml 3/8 384 – 322 1588 – 1697 1596 – 1650 1632 – 1704 1712 – 1778 1801 – 1887 1809 – 1882 1832 – 1920 1849 – 1936 1850 – 1909 1856 – 1939 1867 – 1927 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.2 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-02.shtml 4/8 1878 – 1958 1886 – 1969 1896 – 1980 1904 – 1990 1926 – 1993 20th and 21st century 20th and 21st century T h e C o g n itiv e R e v o lu tio n 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.2 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-02.shtml 5/8 Behaviorism ‘s em phasis on objectivity and focus on external behavior had pulled psychologists’ attention aw ay from the m ind for a prolonged period of tim e. The early w ork of the hum anistic psychologists redirected attention to the individual hum an as a w hole, conscious, and self- aw are being. By the 1950s, new disciplinary perspectives in linguistics, neuroscience, and com puter science w ere em erging, and these areas revived interest in the m ind as a focus of scientiﬁc inquiry. This particular perspective has com e to be know n as the cognitive revolution (M iller, 2003). Although no one person is entirely responsible for starting the cognitive revolution, N oam Chom sky w as very inﬂuential in the early days of this m ovem ent. Chom sky (1928–), an Am erican linguist, w as dissatisﬁed w ith the inﬂuence that behaviorism had had on psychology. H e believed that psychology’s focus on behavior w as short-sighted and that the ﬁeld had to re-focus on m ental functioning if it w ere to offer m eaningful contributions to understanding behavior (M iller, 2003). F e m in is t P s y c h o lo g y Early psychology developed w ith the biases of the W estern, w hite, and m ale academ ics w ho dom inated the ﬁeld, w hich often had negative consequences for w om en, people of color, and LG BT persons. M em bers of these dem ographics had diﬃ culties entering the ﬁeld of psychology and had little inﬂuence on its early developm ent. They also suffered from the attitudes taken tow ard them by w hite, m ale psychologists, w ho w ere not im m une to the nonscientiﬁc attitudes prevalent in the society in w hich they developed and w orked. U ntil the 1960s, few w om en w ere able to practice psychology, so they had little inﬂuence on w hat w as studied. In addition, the experim ental subjects of psychology w ere usually m en, a result of underlying assum ptions that gender had no inﬂuence on psychology and that w om en w ere not of suﬃ cient interest to study. An article by N aom i W eisstein, ﬁrst published in 1968 (W eisstein, 1993), stim ulated a fem inist revolution in psychology by presenting a critique of psychology as a science. She also speciﬁcally criticized m ale psychologists for constructing the psychology of w om en entirely out of their ow n cultural biases and w ithout careful experim ental tests to verify any of their characterizations of w om en. O ne such exam ple cited by W eisstein com es from Bruno Bettleheim , a prom inent psychologist of the 1960s: “. . . w e m ust start w ith the realization that, as m uch as w om en w ant to be good scientists or engineers, they w ant ﬁrst and forem ost to be w om anly com panions of m en and to be m others.” W eisstein’s critique form ed the foundation for the subsequent developm ent of a fem inist psychology that attem pted to be free of the inﬂuence of m ale cultural biases on our know ledge of the psychology of w om en and, indeed, of both genders. M u ltic u ltu ra l P s y c h o lo g y Culture has im portant im pacts on individuals and social psychology, but this area is under-studied. There is a risk that psychological theories and data derived from w hite, Am erican settings could be incorrectly assum ed to apply to individuals and social groups from other cultures (Betancourt & López, 1993). 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.2 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-02.shtml 6/8 O ne w eakness in the ﬁeld of cross-cultural psychology is that, in looking for differences in psychological attributes across cultures, there rem ains a need to go beyond sim ple descriptive statistics (Betancourt & López, 1993). In this sense, it has rem ained a descriptive science, rather than one seeking to determ ine cause and effect. For exam ple, a study of characteristics of individuals seeking treatm ent for a binge eating disorder in H ispanic Am erican, African Am erican, and Caucasian Am erican individuals found signiﬁcant differences betw een groups (Franko et al., 2012). The study concluded that results from studying any one of the groups could not be extended to the other groups, and yet potential causes of the differences w ere not m easured. This history of m ulticultural psychology in the U nited States is a long one. The role of African Am erican psychologists in researching the cultural differences betw een African Am erican individual and social psychology is but one exam ple. In 1920, Cecil Sum ner w as the ﬁrst African Am erican to receive a PhD in psychology in the U nited States. Sum ner established a psychology degree program at H ow ard U niversity, leading to the education of a new generation of African Am erican psychologists (Black, Spence, and O m ari, 2004). M uch of the w ork of early African Am erican psychologists (and a general focus of m uch w ork in the ﬁrst half of the 20th century in psychology in the U nited States) w as dedicated to testing and intelligence testing in particular (Black et al., 2004). That em phasis has continued, particularly because of the im portance of testing in determ ining opportunities for children, but other areas of exploration in African-Am erican psychology research include learning style, sense of com m unity and belonging, and spiritualism (Black et al., 2004). The Am erican Psychological Association has several ethnically based organizations for professional psychologists that facilitate interactions am ong m em bers. Since psychologists belonging to speciﬁc ethnic groups or cultures have the m ost interest in studying the psychology of their com m unities, these organizations provide an opportunity for the grow th of research on the im pact of culture on individual and social psychology. 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.2 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-02.shtml 7/8 Directions: M atch the person on the right with his or her theory or contribution on the left by clicking on the contribution and dragging it to the appropriate spot. GET KEYBOARD TIPS RESET ALL QUESTIONS C h e ck Y o u r K n o w le d g e W ho’ s W ho? THEORIST Naomi W eisstein J. Piaget Carl Rogers W illiam James Sigmund Freud W ilhelm W undt Cecil Sumner B.F . Skinner Aristotle Charles Darwin CONTRIBUTION Criticized male psychologists for constructing the psychology of women Looked for causes and consequences of behaviors and mental processes Behavior is shaped by unconscious thoughts and feelings Humanist psychologist Developed an important theory of cognitive development in children Created the first psychology laboratory Established a psychology degree at Howard University Argued for the role of nurture in psychological development Behaviorist psychologist Theory of natural selection influenced functionalism 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.2 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-02.shtml 8/8 M odule 1.1 M odule 1.3
Psychological thought has evolved from philosophical inquiry to scientific research. Describe the value of different perspectives in the field and the need for the subdivisions in your own words
2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.4 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-04.shtml 1/7 Figure 1.2 Doctoral degrees are generally conferred in form al cerem onies involving special attire and rites. (credit: Public Affairs Oﬃ ce Fort W ainwright) M o d u le 1 .4 : C a r e e r s in P s y c h o lo g y Psychologists can w ork in m any different places doing m any different things. In general, anyone w ishing to continue a career in psychology w ill have to earn a doctoral degree, or Ph.D ., in psychology for som e specialties and at least a m aster’s degree for others. The requirem ents to earn a doctorate vary from country to country and even from school to school, but usually, individuals earning this degree m ust com plete a dissertation. A dissertation is essentially a long research paper or bundled published articles describing research that w as conducted as a part of the candidate’s doctoral training. In the U nited States, a dissertation generally has to be defended before a com m ittee of expert review ers before the degree is conferred (Figure 1.2). O nce som eone earns her doctorate, she m ay seek a faculty appointm ent at a college or university, w hich w ill require her to divide her tim e betw een teaching, research, and service to the institution and profession. The am ount of tim e spent on each of these prim ary responsibilities can vary dram atically, and it is not uncom m on for faculty to shop around for the best personal ﬁt am ong various academ ic environm ents. D epending on an individual’s training, he could be anything from a biological psychologist to a clinical psychologist in an academ ic setting (Figure 1.3). O th e r C a re e rs in A c a d e m ic S e ttin g s Schools often offer m ore courses in psychology than their full-tim e faculty can teach. In these cases, a part tim e adjunct instructor is brought in to teach. Adjunct instructors usually have either a m aster’s or a doctorate degree in psychology, but have a fulltim e career outside of the academ ic setting. Adjunct instructors m ay use these opportunities to supplem ent incom e or to gain teaching experience. O pportunities to becom e an adjunct instructor can be found at both 2-year and 4-year institutions. Som e people earning doctorate degrees m ay enjoy research in an academ ic setting, but m ay not be interested in teaching. These individuals m ight take on faculty positions that are exclusively devoted to conducting research. This type of position w ould likely be found at large, research-focused universities. Print This Page 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.4 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-04.shtml 2/7 Figure 1.3 Individuals earning a PhD in psychology have a range of em ploym ent options. In som e areas in psychology, it is com m on for individuals w ho have recently earned a doctorate to seek out positions in postdoctoral training program s that are available before going on to serve as faculty. In m ost cases, young scientists w ill com plete one or tw o postdoctoral program s before applying for a full-tim e faculty position. Postdoctoral training program s allow young scientists to further develop their research program s and broaden their research skills under the supervision of other professionals in the ﬁeld. C a re e r O p tio n s O u ts id e o f A c a d e m ic S e ttin g s Individuals w ho w ish to becom e practicing clinical psychologists have another option for earning a doctoral degree, w hich is know n as a Psy.D ., a doctor of psychology degree that is increasingly popular am ong individuals interested in pursuing careers in clinical psychology. Psy.D . program s generally place less em phasis on research and focus m ore on application of psychological principles in the clinical context. Regardless of w hether earning a Ph.D . or Psy.D ., m any states require an individual w ishing to practice as a licensed clinical or counseling psychologist to com plete postdoctoral w ork under the supervision of a licensed psychologist. In recent years, how ever, several states have begun to rem ove this requirem ent, w hich w ould allow som eone to get an earlier start in his career (M unsey, 2009). After an individual has m et the state requirem ents, his credentials are evaluated to determ ine w hether he can sit for the licensure exam . O nly individuals that pass this exam can call them selves licensed clinical or counseling psychologists (N orcross, n.d.). Licensed clinical or counseling psychologists can then w ork in a num ber of settings, ranging from private clinical practice to hospital settings. It should be noted that clinical psychologists and psychiatrists do different things and receive different types of education. W hile both can conduct therapy and counseling, clinical psychologists have a Ph.D . or a Psy.D ., w hereas psychiatrists have a doctor of m edicine degree (M .D .). As such, licensed clinical psychologists can adm inister and interpret psychological tests, w hile psychiatrists can prescribe m edications. Individuals earning a Ph.D . can w ork in a variety of settings, depending on their areas of specialization. For exam ple, som eone trained as a biopsychologist m ight w ork in a pharm aceutical com pany to help test the eﬃ cacy of a new drug. Som eone w ith a clinical background m ight becom e a forensic psychologist and w ork w ithin the legal system to m ake recom m endations during crim inal trials and parole hearings, or serve as an expert w itness in a court case. W hile earning a doctoral degree in psychology is a lengthy process, usually taking betw een 5–6 years of graduate study (D eAngelis, 2010), there are a num ber of careers that can be attained w ith a m aster’s degree in psychology. People w ho w ish to provide psychotherapy can becom e licensed to serve as various types of professional counselors (H offm an, 2012). Relevant m aster’s degrees are also suﬃ cient for individuals seeking careers as school psychologists (N ational Association of School Psychologists, n.d.), in som e capacities related to sport psychology 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.4 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-04.shtml 3/7 (Am erican Psychological Association, 2014), or as consultants in various industrial settings (Landers, 2011, June 14). U ndergraduate coursew ork in psychology m ay be applicable to other careers such as psychiatric social w ork or psychiatric nursing, w here assessm ents and therapy m ay be a part of the job. An undergraduate education in psychology is associated w ith a know ledge base and skill set that m any em ployers ﬁnd quite attractive. It should com e as no surprise, then, that individuals earning bachelor’s degrees in psychology ﬁnd them selves in a num ber of different careers, as show n in Table 1.1. Table 1.1 Top O ccupations Em ploying G raduates w ith a B.A. in Psychology (Fogg, H arrington, Shatkin, 2012) Ranking O ccupation 1 M id- and top-level m anagem ent (executive, adm inistrator) 2 Sales 3 Social w ork 4 O ther m anagem ent positions 5 H um an resources (personnel, training) 6 O ther adm inistrative positions 7 Insurance, real estate, business 8 M arketing and sales 9 H ealthcare (nurse, pharm acist, therapist) 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.4 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-04.shtml 4/7 Ranking O ccupation 10 Finance (accountant, auditor) Lin k to Le a rn in g W atch a brief video describing som e of the career options available to people earning bachelor’s degrees in psychology. C h e ck Yo u r K n o w le d g e As you read your assignm ent for this lesson, pay close attention to the key term s and phrases listed throughout the chapter. These term s and concepts are im portant to your understanding of the inform ation provided in the lesson. 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.4 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-04.shtml 5/7 Previous Card Term 1 of 12 Next Card Module 1.4 Flashcards Clic k on the notecard to reveal the defin itio n. RESET DESCRIPTION: A professional organization representing psychologists in the United States. American Psychological Association 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.4 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-04.shtml 6/7 Directions: M atch the psychological perspective or subdivision listed left with the best exam ple of its application. GET KEYBOARD TIPS RESET ALL QUESTIONS C h e ck Y o u r K n o w le d g e PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Cognitive perspective Developmental psychology Sociocultural perspective Cultural psychology Biological perspective Psychodynamic perspective Social psychology Humanist psychology Feminist psychology Behavioral psychology Evolutionary psychology APPLICATIONStudy the behavior of crowds Genetically influenced behavior in past and present Ef fects of brain damage on behavior Observe rewards/punishments on behavior Study people’ s willingness to help a stranger Emphasize free will and personal growth Focus on dreams and universal fears of death Study memory and reasoning Study the growth of children Norms in one region dif fer from another Analyze gender biased research methods 2017/5/27 PSY101 – Module 1.4 https://www .riolearn.or g/content/psy/psy101/PSY101_INTER_0000_v8/lessons/module01-04.shtml 7/7 M odule 1.3