Reply responses to 2 classmates, a minimum of 200 words in length each, begin with the name of the student to whom you are responding and are otherwise fully compliant with assignment instructions.

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Reply responses to 2 classmates, a minimum of 200 words in length each, begin with the name of the student to whom you are responding and are otherwise fully compliant with assignment instructions.  Weekly reply responses to classmates are accompanied by a weekly Initial post (no Forum points can be earned for posting reply posts only in the absence of that week’s required initial post).

Your responses to the postings of other students should be relevant and substantive. Reply posts containing just a few sentences or statements of agreement or disagreement only or that stray away from the topic or repeat what another classmate has already said in his or her posts does not demonstrate substantive discussion.   Please be certain to post the name of the person you are responding to in each post you make.  This is essential for tracking who said what to whom.

If you disagree with a point a classmate made, you must do so respectfully.  For example, rather than saying, “I couldn’t disagree more…” or “I think you are off here…” you might begin your differing perspective by saying, “In reading your point(s) an alternative came to mind …”.  The first two openers can foster defensiveness while the last one invites your classmate to consider a related but different perspective on his/her ideas.

No quoting: No quoting of published information is permitted on the Forums. The purpose of the discussions is to share insights and learning based on engagement with assignment materials. I will grade your discussions based on your ability to demonstrate the meaning made of those materials and meeting assignment requirements, not the ability to piece together quotes of what published authors already wrote.

Classmate 1 Tunisia Manuel

Learning what feelings to desire

One take away is the socialization of emotion in young children. This is important because children learn to express and regulate their emotions in socially desirable and valued ways. Emotional signs are seen in infancy, but most children show significant signs by age 3. Children are able to develop their own understanding of their own emotions and recognize standar4ds and norms. Parents and other peers, as well as culture shape their children ideal affect. Parents may expose their children to specific practices, products, and institutions that reflect culturally valued affect. Children may also learn which affective states to value through exposure to storybooks that is why reading to children is important.

The second take away is study 1. Study 1 predicted that European American children preferred excited vs. calm smiles and exciting vs. calm activities more than Taiwanese Chinese children. European American children were also more likely to recognize the excited vs. calm smile as happier than were TC children. Asian American children who were exposed to both American and East Asian cultures, fell in between the two groups. These findings show that between group differences in ideal affect can be observed in adolescent years. These differences are culturally learned and it is fascinating to show the similarities as well as differences in each child through their cultural norm.

The third take away is Study 3. Study 3 they read children stories about excitement or calm characters. They also examined their affective preferences like smiles, excitement, gestures. And it found that across cultures, exposure to exciting vs. calm storybooks altered children’s preferences for excited vs. calm activities and their perceptions of happiness. These findings show that cultural differences in ideal affect may be due to differential exposure to calm and exciting storybooks. This is an interesting study and my assumptions were off so that was an important take away for me.

Values and Display Rules for Specific Emotions

The first take away was the emotional display rules. The Display Rule Assessment Inventory was used to measure emotional display rules. The version of the DRAI used asked respondents to report what they believe they should do when experiencing seven emotions: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise toward each of the interaction partners in a private setting and in a public setting by picking one of six possible behavioral responses. It wants you to show more than you feel it, express it as you feel it, show less than you feel it, show nothing, show the emotion while smiling at the same time, and hide your feelings by smiling. The participants were also given other as a response where they were asked to specify if their choice was not among the options listed. Twenty four situations resulted by coupling each interaction partner with a private and with a public setting. Additionally, two situations of oneself being alone in a private and a public setting were included, which yielded a total of 26 situations. This is needed to get more accurate findings and it gives more insight about using this test method.

The second take away is the findings that indicated that Americans recognized greater importance to Conservation and Self-Enhancement than Germans because they placed greater emphasis on Openness to Change and Self-Transcendence than Americans. These results still show after controlling for demographic variables whose sample differences were not contributed to cultural features. The individual level differences found make sense based on previous American-German comparisons on the cultural level. They are also in line with other American-German individual level comparisons. The sizes for the American-German differences in values ranged from 0.48 to 1.21 showing the differences within Western culture are substantial from the perspective of a contrast with prototypical collectivist cultures. This view explains the differences in the West are small. The findings will raise awareness for the differences within Western cultures. I love reading and learning about other people cultures that differ from mine. It give insight on Western cultures and more about diversity.

The third take away is about emotions of anger and sadness. This finding is showing that anger and sadness are vulnerable emotions. When people show anger it shows what bothers them. When people convey sadness it comes off as a weakness. Showing vulnerability contradicts the values of Self-Enhancement that Americans show more than Germans. Expression and perception of anger may be seen as threatening the social order because Americans valued Conservation more than Germans and it makes sense that the expression of anger is more restricted in the United States than in Germany. Contempt and disgust are emotions that people use to place themselves above other people. This matches with Self-Enhancement values that Americans recognized more than Germans did. It makes sense that American display rules that allow the expressions of contempt and disgust more than German display rules. This finding matches previous research on attitudes toward different emotions. Germans show disgust and contempt as an emotion they understand least and Americans show anger, rage, shame, and the least. People understand those emotions that are allowed to express the least. This stood out to me to read about the differences in findings on Germans and Americans so I had to include it. The Germans and Americans cultures and emotions are different and the hypothesis leaned more toward hypothesis 3 in this findings.

Classmate 2 Larketya Sloan

The first article would be Family Temperament, I choose three takeaways that are highlights of family temperament. I pick self-regulations it defined the ability to keep control of self-behaviour and thought. This way parents and children can find solution and know how to handle involvement during talking, having positive mood, and keeping a good relationship between each other. Another one parental goal, coming up in the new generation parents are not trying to accomplish grounds of goals with their love ones as it was always done back in the days. What is lacking good parents is more than obedience, it’s more than being a child’s friend. It is raising children to have an understanding of why they do what they do and how to act appropriately in situations. It is this understanding that eventually allows children to get along on their own. Finnish and American citizens curiously, gender difference in activity level and aspects of effortful control were limited to childrenhood. These different countries stands out because Finnish parents are more control of what their children are doing and consistent when it comes to teaching and discipline. American family they include actions that are harmful to the physical, emotional, or social well-being of the child, the family members, and others. They may interfere with the child’s intellectual development. As the article In sum, based on Hofstede’s differential ranking of Finnish and American cultures of individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance, we expected Americans to score higher on surgency, especially its behavioral components and finns to score higher on negative affect and effortful control.

Peers Groups

Personality development Personality is what makes a person a unique person, and it is recognizable soon after birth. A child’s personality has several components: temperament, environment, and character. Temperament is the set of genetically determined traits that determine the child’s approach to the world and how the child learns about the world. There are no genes that specify personality traits, but some genes do control the development of the nervous system, which in turn controls behavior. Social environment and behaviours The critical thinking exercises have as their purpose the development of awareness of one’s beliefs and attitudes toward social oppression in the society, especially of people with backgrounds that are diverse from those of the mainstream. Personality maturation During early adulthood, individuals from different cultures across the world tend to become more agreeable, more conscientious, and less neurotic. Two leading theories offer different explanations for these pervasive age trends: Five-factor theory proposes that personality maturation is largely determined by genetic factors, whereas social-investment theory proposes that personality maturation in early adulthood is largely the result of normative life transitions to adult roles. All three of these has some type of contact when it comes to peer groups of helping to control of behaviour and self development.

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