Response: Variations in Drug Response
Review several of your colleagues’ posts and respond substantively to at least two of your peers. Assess your peers’ responses for the correctness of their statements, their integration of the pertinent aspects of each patient’s situation, and their views of the risk-benefits analysis. Please use information from the required resources to support your statements.
1St Response “Porter”
According to our text, Advokat, (2014), genetics has a lot to do with how an individual will metabolize a drug. Also we would need to consider if the individual is using another type of drug (including alcohol) that could cause an interaction. This interaction can cause an increase or decrease in the metabolism process. Women have less of the enzyme that metabolizes alcohol (alcohol dehydrogenase) than men do, thus depending on the amount of alcohol taken in they will have higher blood alcohol levels than would a woman (Advokat, 2014).
There are four membranes in the body that will affect drug distribution which include cell membranes, wall of capillary vessels, blood brain barrier and the placental barrier. A drug that is administered orally in liquid form will absorb into the system more rapidly than a tablet or capsule (Advokat, 2014). The dosage given will differ for these two individuals due to body weight and height, Mr. Smith would most likely take a higher dosage to have an effect than Ms. Jones will.
There are four ways that drugs leave the body: through the kidneys, the lungs, bile, and through the skin. Most drugs leave the body through urine. There are many factors that can change the way a drug is metabolized besides body weight, genetics and height. These factors include environment, culture and physiology (Advokat, 2014). These factors will be different in each of these individuals therefore the way the drug metabolizes in each will be different. Drug half- life is the time it takes half of the amount of the drug to be eliminated from the system which is important in order to determine how long a drug will stay in the body. This is also important to know in order to administer the appropriate dosage (Advokat, 2014).
We can assume that Ms. Jones is in good health and as a personal trainer would have good metabolism. The alcohol however will set her back since she takes it in on a regular basis and this drug will react with others. For Mr. Smith who may be less active and is older, we need to consider these factors in how he will metabolize a drug.
Advokat, C. D., Comaty, J. E., & Julien, R. M. (2014). Julien’s primer of drug action: A comprehensive guide to the actions, uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs (13th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers
2nd Respone “Keegan”
The way our bodies interact with drugs varies from person to person and many factors play a part. Age, weight and even gender are important factors. In our two examples, we have a younger, very active and fit female, Ms. Jones and a much larger, older Mr. Smith. This assignment will access how each of their bodies will respond and interact with the intake of alcohol, which is a drug that is ingested orally, using the GI tract as a way to distribution. This allows the drug to be absorbed quickly into the bloodstream.
Ms. Jones is a social drinker who drinks more nights of the week than she doesn’t. Ms. Jones’s low percentage of body fat and being of average weight for her height the alcohol will have a stronger effect on her, though her frequent use could play a part in lowering her tolerance, requiring more and more alcohol to reach the desired effect. With a continuous intake of the drug, alcohol, it will take the body longer to eliminate it from the body. One thing that Ms. Jones has going for her, is that because of being fit as well as having low body fat, her liver will process the alcohol more thoroughly that someone with a larger percentage of body fat, such as we see in Mr. Smith. As with any long-term use of a drug though, the liver and the kidneys will begin to work as well, leaving traces of the drug in the bloodstream longer. The body will ultimately expel the drug through the urinary tract. If her drinking continues, she is running the risk of becoming physically dependent, meaning her body would have an adverse reaction to not being provided with alcohol, a condition that could be fatal, such as what is suspected in the death of the talented musician, Amy Winehouse.
Mr. Smith is a sixty-five-year-old male, who has a fairly stationary job as a software tester. His weight and percentage of body fat, in addition to a slow metabolic system, he can intake a greater amount of alcohol and not feel its effects. Though Mr. Smith only drinks occasionally, it is possible that despite his size and metabolism, his tolerance to alcohol may be lower than that of Ms. Jones. In addition, his liver will filter the alcohol less effectively than Ms. Jones because his liver will be fattier. If he continues to consume the drug, the half-life of the alcohol will increase with every drink. He will continue to feel the effects of the alcohol longer and eventually, his tolerance to the drug will increase unless he continues to only drink occasionally.
There are many risks associated with the misuse of alcohol. Heart disease, stroke, cirrhosis of the liver, dependency, and kidney disease just to name a few. Both of our subjects are at risk of these due to the various factors to each individual.
Advokat, C, Comaty, J., & Julien, R. (2014). Julien’s primer of drug action: A comprehensive guide to the actions, uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs (13th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers