For this assignment, you will go to the CSU Online Library and use the Academic Search Complete database to research a topic related to human rights. In addition, once you pick your topic, you may want to do online research to find additional information; however, this is not required. Here are some examples that that you can use: prisoner rights, death penalty, poverty, women’s rights, or LGBT rights. Research your topic and discover the issues. Describe these in a few paragraphs, starting each new response with the question it addresses: Where is your topic most relevant in 2014? Who is most affected by the topic? Apply the sociological perspectives on stratification to explain how social class and stratification affect your topic. What are some projects in place that will address the problem (suggest one if none exist yet)? SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology 6 Why did you choose your topic? How has learning about the topic affected your ideas going into this assignment? Have any of your views changed since learning more about the topic? You may also use your textbook to pick a different human rights-related topic, if you so choose. Your response must be a minimum of two pages in length, answering the questions above. Use appropriate APA style and in-text citations and references.
Unit VI Scholarly Activity
SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VI Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Analyze the ideas of sociological theorists in terms of their historical, economic, and social contexts. 1.1 Use the major perspectives in sociology to better understand current events . 4. Evaluate patterns of behavior through sociological skills and theory. 6. Explain how social structure shapes an individual’s life chances. 6.1 Determine when decisions are made from free will and when they are made within the confines of social status and role. Reading Assignment Chapter 10: Social Class Chapter 11: Global Inequality Unit Lesson Stratification When discussing stratification , it is useful to think of the image of geographical strata or a layer cake with multiple layers. Each layer of stratification contains similar properties within, but differing proper ties from the other layers. Society is also comprised of layers, which we call groups or classes. Each class has similar properties within the class, but differs considerably from other classes. Within each class, people have certain life chances and everyday practical consequences, including housing size, alcohol consumption, and mate selection. These are all different from one class to another. On one level, this seems obvious. However, Durkheim admonishes never to assume a practice without first studying it. We turn to theory to help understand how stratification works. Functionalists, a la Parsons, study what makes social order possible. According to functionalism, there are two major ways for solidarity: common beliefs/values (which fuse members together ) and the integrative r ole of the major social institutions. Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore tried to discover the function of stratification. They were functionalists, and as such, believed that stratification maintained social equilibrium. In their essay “Some Principles of Stratification,” Davis and Moore answered their question concerning the function of stratification thusly: “(Its function is) to ensure that the most important positions are conscientiously filled by the most qualified pe rsons.” (1945:244). To Davis and Moore, the division of labor included four categories: economic, political, technological , and religious . They saw these categories as necessary for the survival of society. In each area, there are certain jobs that are more important and thus more highly regarded. However, these positions are also the ones that require the most training and talent. Doctors would not go through the rigorous training they are required to complete were it not for the outcome, said Davis an d Moore (1945). UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE Social Class and Global Inequality SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title They further argue that societies motivate people to fill these important but difficult roles and positions by the use of unequal rewards. Most sociologists are very skeptical of the functionalist approach to stratification. For one reason , we need only look to the patterning of who becomes a doctor in our society to see that it is more than simply the best suited for the job. After all, medical school is very expensive, even with scholarships. However, functionalists are good at pointing o ut areas that sociologists should study and for describing conditions of stratification. Conflict theory offers better explanations for stratification. Karl Marx believed that in all societies, people produce goods to satisfy their needs. In doing so, so cieties will differ. For example, things such as families, governments, education, religion, law, and cultural values will all be different for a society based on hunting and gathering than they will for a postindustrial society. Social structure refers to stable networks that connect people to each other and to society. This social structure shapes the options available to people. What shapes the social structure? According to conflict theory, the mode of production shapes the structure. Along this lin e, Marx predicted that there would eventually be two classes: those who own the means of production (the bourgeoisie) and those who own the labor (the proletariat). Accordingly, those with the means and power will control those without the means and power. Marx also predicted that one day, the proletariat would recognize this control and rise up to overcome the bourgeoisie. The options available to people are shaped by the social structure, which is shaped by the means of production. This is the foundation for understanding stratification from a Marxist sociological perspective. Think about it this way. Say you work for a huge conglomerate called ABC Company, and you wish to take a vacation. Are you the one who decides when you take your vacation, or do yo u need your boss’ input on how many days you can take off, and when it is convenient to take those days off? Most workers must make their choices within the structure of their job. If you own ABC Company, you do not need anyone’s permission to take a vacat ion. Although Marx’s views have not fully been realized with respect to revolt, we do see a clear distinction between the haves and have -nots within our society. Sociologists study these distinctions. Additionally, sociologists study how networks of soci al relationships, such as family, law, and economy, are connected. When we look at patterns of behavior, we ask who benefits. During the time Marx was writing, he noted that the capitalists of his day wanted to lengthen the workday and to increase the pr oduction of the workforce. Who would benefit? The owners would! In our own time, we might ask ourselves, who benefits when businesses take their production to foreign lands? The owners do, of course. W ho benefits from privatized schools? The owners do. Another key element in Marxist theory is the fact that those of means have power and therefore have a vested interest in keeping things the way they are (maintaining the status quo). Both the bourgeoisie and the proletariat have an economic position defined by their structural position. Only the bourgeoisie recognizes class -consciousness and works together with the other people in the group. There is a sense of solidarity based on shared interests of the position. However, among the proletariat, interests are fragmented by differing religious beliefs, ethnic loyalties, prestige distinctions, and the rhetoric of separation. Can you think of ways that we, the proletariat, are fragmented from each other? (And yes, you do belong to the proletariat, even if you only own a small business.) Max Weber also wrote prolifically about stratification in society. According to Weber, it was determined not simply by who owns the means, but also by the values of the group. We act on both our economic interests and on our va lues. For Weber, there are three types of inequalities: market, status , and power . Weber believed there are three market situations that result in economic inequality. The labor market, which divides people into employers and employees, creates an economic inequality. The money market , which separates creditors and debtors, also creates an economic inequality. Finally, the commodity market , which differentiates sellers and buyers, proper ty owners and tenants, and so on, also creates economic inequality. SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Another area for inequality is a status group . W eber noted that status inequality (or prestige) bases itself on the prevailing values and ideals of society. For example, actors have more prestige than police officers have , and singers have more prestige than office clerks have . Being part of a status group means having some sense of shared identity with one another. This identity comes with a desire to maintain and protect one’s position. How? Each status group selectively interacts within the group by socializing with their own group, inviting group members to their homes, sending their children to the same schools, and joining the same organizations. A final type of inequality is one o f power. Weber argued that parties organize for the pursuit of power. These groups are action -oriented, can be political or not, and can be based on economics (class) or on the ways people live (status). In the following units, we will discover stratific ation based on gender, sexuality, race, and ethnicity. Reference Davis, K. , & Moore, W. (194 4). Some principles of stratification. American Sociological Review, 10 (2), 242 -249. Suggested Reading Learn more about this week’s topics by researching in the databases of the CSU Online Library. The following sources can be found in the General OneFile database: Bickford, D. (2012). “We all like to think we’ve saved somebody :” Sex trafficking in literature. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 13 (3), 127 -137. Bierman, A., & Schieman, S. (2007). Religious activities and changes in the sense of divine control: Dimensions of social stratification as contingencies. Sociology of Religion, 68 (4), 361 -372. Chuang, J. (2006). Beyond a snapshot: Preventing human trafficking in the global economy. Indian a Journal of Global Legal Studies, 13 (1), 137 -164. Millican, M., & Tiapula, S. (2008). Identifying the victims of human trafficking. Prosecutor, Journal of the National District Attorneys Association, 42 (1), 34 -41. Potocky , M. (2010). The travesty of human trafficking: A decade of failed U.S. policy. Social Work, 55 (4), 373 -376. Rotolo, T., & Tittle, C. (2000). IQ and stratification: An empirical evaluation of Herrnstein and Murray’s social change argument. Social Forces, 79 (1), 1-29. SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Learning Activities (Non -Graded) SocThink Your textbook provides several opportunities for you to explore relevant topics, from personal self -exploration to challenging questions concerning topics being studied in this unit. Taking the time to read and respond to these opportunities will help you learn and apply the information being studied. These opportunities can be found on the following page s: Chapter 10 o Pg. 241 o Pg. 242 o Pg. 245 o Pg. 247 o Pg. 251 o Pg.256 o Pg. 257 o Pg. 260 Chapter 11 o Pg. 268 o Pg. 271 o Pg. 272 o Pg. 277 o Pg. 280 o Pg. 282 o Pg. 285 o Pg. 286 Check Your Learning Quizzes are a way to self -test to see if you understand what you are studying. The textbook provides a brief “Pop Quiz” for each chapter. Take advantage of this learning tool to enrich your learning experience! The answers are provided, so you can check and see how well you did. For this unit, the quizzes are available on the following pages: Chapter 10 Pop Quiz, Pg. 263 Chapter 11 Pop Quiz, Pg. 289 Caste System Use the textbook and the Internet to learn about the caste system in India. Although now illegal, the caste system is still a lived reality today. List and explain the five job -based castes. Find examples of each. Discuss mobility in a caste system. When you write your paper, be sure to include in -text citations and a reference page. The se are non -graded activities , so you do not have to submit them . However, if you have difficulty with any concepts, contact your instructor for additional discussion and/or explanation.