Sociologists research and write about current topics that are culturally, politically, socially, and economically important.
One such subject is same-sex marriage. For this assignment, you will research a few court cases. Your goal here is to study this subject as a scientist would. Therefore, it does not matter whether you agree with the ruling or not, you can still write objectively about it. Use the Internet to find court cases and news articles from mainstream news outlets to use for your references, along with the textbook.
Begin by looking up the Loving v. Virginia case. Next, list the states that allow same-sex marriage. What were some of the arguments the states used in their legalization? What were some of the legal arguments against same-sex marriage? (Note: When looking for information, please refrain from religious reasoning or personal opinions; remember, you are looking at this as a scientist.) Do you think that the Supreme Court’s ruling on Loving v. Virginia changed much about American attitudes and practices? Does this case set precedent for same-sex marriage? How has this view changed over time? Do you see a shift in America’s view towards same-sex marriage? In what way is it changing?
Finally, briefly discuss how you feel about the subject. To what groups do you belong that help to shape your feelings about this issue? How do they help shape them? Your assignment must be a minimum of two pages in length. As always, use APA formatting. Pay special attention to the proper citation of Internet resources.
Unit VII Scholarly Activity
SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 2. Analyze the relationship between one’s beliefs and one’s group memberships. 2.1 Explain how gender and sexuality have shifted over time. 2.2 Differentiate between sex and gender . 2.3 Examine how sexuality and identity shape sexual orientation. 4. Evaluate patterns of behavior through sociological skills and theory. Reading Assignment Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality Unit Lesson Why do we ask the gender of a baby? Mostly, we expect the parents to buy into our preconceived ideas on attitude, dress, and behavior based on gender. By asking the sex, we can be sure we will buy the “right” gendered gift for the baby. Seriously, go online to the Toys R’ Us website. Note th at there are pull -down menus that direct you to “boy toys” and “girl toys.” What is interesting to note is that in the pink section, girls play with girl dolls they call dolls. In the blue section, boys play with boy dolls they call action figures. The oth er thing to note is that the boys’ toys are mostly action -oriented, and the girls’ toys tend to be more sedentary. Sex is a biological category of people. Gender is a socially constructed category of people. This means that gender does not exist on its o wn. There are no “real men” or “real women.” Instead, there are simply people who we, as a society, decide should act or dress in a particular way. Why do men wear pants and allow their facial hair to grow? Because we, as a community, train them to do so. Why do many women stay home with their children? Because we teach women to be more nurturing and selfless. Institutions such as the family, religion, and media support an ideology that results in sexist gender relations. W omen and women’s behaviors are val ued less than men and men’s behaviors. Have you heard anyone claim that sexism is outdated? Recently, a student pointed to the fact that he saw a woman operating a steamroller when he was driving on the highway. The very fact that he noticed the one fema le and not the six males who were also operating them speaks volumes on sexism being alive and well. One of the reasons young people believe sexism is outdated is because they see women in positions of professional equity with men. These women are making strides. However, the older women are still completely disadvantaged and in low -paying, gender -segregated jobs. Moreover, young, uneducated women also find themselves in positions of inequity with men. This is especially true for women of color and poor women. Just what is sexism? According to George Albee (1981), sexism can be defined as: “ascribing superiority or inferiority, unsupported by any evidence, in traits, abilities, social value, personal worth, and other characteristics to males or females a s a group.” Albee points out that sexism is “woven into the texture of our lives” and is harmful to both males and females in a variety of ways. Sexism can be blatant, covert, or subtle. Blatant sexism is obvious, clearly unfair treatment of women, when compared to similar treatment of men. Covert sexism, on the other hand, is sexism that is recognized but UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Gender and Sexuality SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title purposely hidden from view. Finally, subtle sexism represents unequal and unfair treatment of women that is not recognized by many people because it is perceived to be normative, and therefore does not appear unusual (Swim & Cohen, 1997). One way we can easily understand subtle sexism is through language. We teach children to use sexist language in the same way they learn to speak. They hear it from family, friends, and through the media. Thus, it appears to be the normal way to speak. Howe ver, this form of sexism perpetuates the gender stereotypes and status differences between men and women (Swim & Cohen, 1997). What are some examples of sexist language? Using the pronoun “he” when we mean “he or she” is one example of sexist language. M edia coverage of presidential campaigns also provide a means for recognizing subtle sexism. Often, reporters are heard referring to a female incumbent as “the female senator from New York.” By including the term “female,” the reporter is suggesting that th e usual or accepted gender for senator is male. (You never hear them say “the male senator from Arizona” for the opposition.) Sexism manifests itself in both attitudes and behaviors at the individual level and at the institutional level. At the individua l level, blatant sexism is easy to see. For example, a person may hold sexist attitudes, such as the attitude that males are better than females in business, or males are smarter than females. Individual sexist behavior is often noticeable , too. For instan ce, in a classroom, a sexist teacher might suggest that boys should study math and girls should study the humanities. Subtle sexist behavior in the classroom happens unknowingly when a teacher only calls on boys, or praises the work of mostly boys. Both blatant and subtle sexism in individuals come from individual beliefs. However, individuals are very much aware of their beliefs in blatant sexism, whereas in subtle sexism, individuals may simply hold traditional ideas of gender norms. Either way, the con sequences of both blatant and subtle sexism are very real. However, sexism also exists at the institutional level. Institutional sexism exists and is sometimes more difficult for students to perceive . Institutional sexism is the subordination of women th at is part of the everyday workings of an institution such as education, criminal justice, or the economy. Institutional sexism happens in communities that continue to treat domestic violence as a private matter between a husband and wife. Another example is the higher value given to “masculine” qualities in organizations (in other words, competition vs. cooperation). Reference Albee , G. W . (1981). The prevention of sexism. Professional Psychology, 12 (1), 20 -28. Swim, J. K. , & Cohen, L. L. (1997). Overt, covert, and subtle sexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly , 21 (1) , 103 –118. Suggested Reading Learn more about this week’s topics by researching in the databases of the CSU Online Library. The following are examples of what is available in the General OneFile database: Besen -Cassino , Y. (2008). The cost of being a girl: Gender earning differentials in the early labor markets. NWSA Journal, 20 (1), 146 -161. Hamidi, F. E., & Said, M. (2014 ). Gender -based wage and occupational inequality in the new millennium in Egypt. Journal of Developing Areas, 48 (1), 21 -42. Mitra, A. (2003). Access to supervisory jobs and the gender wage gap among professionals. Journal of Economic issues, 37 (4), 102 3-1045. Sax, L. (2000). The future of Freud’s illusion. World and I, 15 (8), 263 -278. Sax, L. (2002 , August ). Single -sex education – Ready for prime time? World and I, 17 (8), 257 -264. SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Todd, P., & Preston, A. (2012). Gender pay equity in Australia: Where are we now and where are we heading? Australian Bulletin of Labour, 38 (3), 251 -278. Learning Activities (Non -Graded) SocThink Your textbook provides several opportunities for you to explore relevant topics, from personal self -exploration to challenging questions concerning topics being studied in this unit. Taking the time to read and respond to these opportunities will help you learn and apply the information being studied. These opportunities can be found on the following pages: Chapter 12 o Pg. 293 o Pg. 297 o Pg. 301 o Pg. 304 o Pg. 307 Check Your Learning Quizzes are a way to self -test to see if you understand what you are studying. The textbook provides a brief “Pop Quiz” for each chapter. Take advantage of this learning tool to enrich your learning experience! The answers are provided, so you can check and see how well you did. For this unit, the quizzes are available on the following page: Chapter 12 Pop Quiz, Pg. 315 Sex and Gender in Advertising Find three images of advertisements online. (Hint: The ads shoul d have people in them) Review the following questions about each advertisement: 1. What social group is the ad directed toward? W hat social groups are represented in the ad? (Hint: They are not always the same.) 2. Does the advertisement reinforce or violate c ultural gender/sexual norms? If it violates them, what purpose do you think the violation serves? If it reinforces, explain how. 3. In addition to the product, what else is the ad selling? (Hint: Consider things like love, marriage, sex, individuality, freedo m, sophistication, leisure and other desirables.) 4. What is your reaction to the ad? The se are non -graded activities , so you do not have to submit them . However, if you have difficulty with any concepts, contact your instructor for additional discussion and/ or explanation.