Wk 5 Annotated Bibliography (Kim Woods Only) Due in 2 day -> Urgent

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Read all pages carefully, selected topic, intro & must be follow format according to Sample Paper (3-3 Para each Article)              

Must be 100% Original              

I hv already attached Articles, u must be use this 3 articles for Annotated Bibliography      

Wk 5 Discussion (Due in 2 day) Urgent/..Wk 5 Discussion (Required Assignment) Due in 2 day.docx

In this week my research Topic changed,

(Must be 4 to 5 Pages)

Must be 100% Original Work Assignment must be follow Rubric Superior Criteria

Plz read My Note, Important tips (Wrote on 2nd Page) and also sample paper attached.

Must be use attached Three Article

NOTE: I hv attached 3 Articles & include each Article have (3 para) three paragraph
summary, Analysis
to the study.

New Selected topic: Strategies Used by Agency Leaders to Safeguard Rosewood Trade (Annotated Bibliography must be write on related this topic & Apply)

MY Notes:
(Must see sample paper)

Sample Annotated Bibliography attached so must be follow & minimum 3 pages required & three (3) peer-reviewed sources (no older than 5 years).

(4-5 Pages required )Must be include Abstract/Intro like in sample

Course: DDBA – Doctoral Study Mentoring

Selected topic: Strategies Used by Agency Leaders to Safeguard Rosewood Trade

Discussion 2: Annotated Bibliography

In each week of this course, you will research and select three (3) peer-reviewed, scholarly sources to develop an annotated bibliography that you can use in your Doctoral Study. You will need to take the three sources and synthesize the references into a single narrative annotated bibliography that compares/contrasts or supports your study. For example, you may develop three references that will fit into the Nature of the Study (or any other component) and then the synthesized version will help you in developing your Prospectus/Proposal. Please see this week’s Learning Resources for the Sample Annotated Bibliography Template, which you should use to complete your annotated bibliography.

By Day 3

Post your synthesized annotated bibliography narrative that includes an explanation of how these references relate to one or more components of your Doctoral Study and incorporates specific references to the Doctoral Study Rubric.

Refer to the Week 5 Discussion 2 Rubric for specific grading elements and criteria. Your Instructor will use this rubric to assess your work.

Important tips: Include each Article annotated bibliography have three paragraph summary, Analysis and applies to the study

Walden’s recommendations for formatting an AB includes three areas, typically formatted in three paragraphs: 

This first paragraph of the annotation summarizes the source. It outlines the main findings and primary methods of the study.

Summary: What did the author do? Why? What did he/she find?

This second paragraph of the annotation analyzes the source. It explains the benefits of the source but also the limitations.

Analysis: Was the author’s method sound? What information was missing? Is this a scholarly source?

This third paragraph of the annotation applies the source. It explains how the source’s ideas, research, and information can be applied to other contexts.

Application: Does this article apply to the literature? How would you be able to apply this method/study to your particular study? Is the article universal?

In general, annotated bibliographies should avoid referring to the first or second person (I, me, my, we, our, you, and us). Instead, students should aim to be objective and remove themselves from annotations. However, there may be some exceptions to this guideline. Check with your instructor if you are unsure about whether he/she will allow you to use “I” in your annotated bibliography.

Must be use Below Three Article for Annotated Bibliography & related intro & topic

Christen, C. T., & Lovaas, S. R. (2022). The dual-continuum approach: An extension of the contingency theory of Strategic Conflict Management. Public Relations Review, 48(1), 102145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2021.102145

Rosenberg Hansen, J., & Ferlie, E. (2014). Applying strategic management theories in public sector organizations: Developing a typology. Public Management Review, 18(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2014.957339

Wacker, J. G. (1989). An integrative theory of strategic quality management: a cost-benefit framework for evaluating quality improvement programmes. International Journal of Production Research, 27(1), 53. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207548908942530

(Christen & Lovaas, 2022)

(Rosenberg Hansen & Ferlie, 2014)

(Wacker, 1989)

Assignment must be follow Rubric Superior Criteria

Rubric Detail








Not Submitted

Element 1: Annotated Bibliography (post and attach document)

6.6 (30%)

Student posts and includes an attachment of his/her annotated bibliography which includes three peer-reviewed, scholarly sources that are thoroughly synthesized into a single, well-written narrative annotated bibliography that explicitly compares/contrasts or supports his/her study. A thorough and detailed explanation of how the sources relate to his/her study is evident.

6.27 (28.5%)

Student posts and includes an attachment of his/her annotated bibliography which includes three peer-reviewed, scholarly sources that are thoroughly synthesized into a single, well-written narrative annotated bibliography that explicitly compares/contrasts or supports his/her study. A detailed explanation of how the sources relate to his/her study is evident. One or two minor details are missing or lack clarity.

5.61 (25.5%)

Student posts and includes an attachment of his/her annotated bibliography which includes three peer-reviewed, scholarly sources that are synthesized into a single narrative annotated bibliography that explicitly compares/contrasts or supports his/her study. An explanation with some details of how the sources relate to his/her study is evident.

4.95 (22.5%)

Student posts and includes an attachment of his/her annotated bibliography which includes three peer-reviewed, scholarly sources that are somewhat synthesized into a single narrative annotated bibliography that compares/contrasts or supports his/her study. A cursory statement of how the sources relate to his/her study is evident.

3.3 (15%)

Does not meet minimal standards and/or is posted late.


Did not submit element.

Element 2: Follow-up Responses

8.8 (40%)

On Day 5 and on Day 7, student’s responses fully contribute to the quality of interaction by offering constructive critique, suggestions, in-depth questions, and/or additional resources related to peers’ annotated bibliography. Student demonstrates active engagement with more than one peer on at least two days in the discussion forum (or with Instructor if there are no other peers/posts).

8.36 (38%)

On Day 5 and on Day 7, student shares some constructive critique, suggestions, in-depth questions, and/or additional resources related to peers’ annotated bibliography, but more depth and/or clarity around ideas is needed. Student demonstrates active engagement with more than one peer on at least two days in the discussion forum (or with Instructor if there are no other peers/posts).

7.48 (34%)

Student did not post on Day 5 and on Day 7, but he/she did engage with at least one peer (or with Instructor if there are no other peers/posts) during the week offering constructive feedback related to peers’ annotated bibliography.

6.6 (30%)

Student posts to at least one peer (or with Instructor if there are no other peers/posts) but response is cursory and/or off topic.

4.4 (20%)

Does not meet minimal standards and/or student posted late.


Did not submit element.

Element 3: Written Delivery Style & Grammar

3.3 (15%)

Student consistently follows APA writing style and basic rules of formal English grammar and written essay style. Student communicates in a cohesive, logical style. There are no spelling or grammar errors.

3.13 (14.25%)

Student consistently follows APA writing style and basic rules of formal English grammar and written essay style. Student communicates in a cohesive, logical style. There are one or two minor errors in spelling or grammar.

2.81 (12.75%)

Student mostly follows APA writing style and basic rules of formal English grammar and written essay style. Student mostly communicates in a cohesive, logical style. There are some errors in spelling or grammar.

2.48 (11.25%)

Student does not follow APA writing style and basic rules of formal English grammar and written essay style and does not communicate in a cohesive, logical style.

1.65 (7.5%)

Does not meet minimal standards.


Did not submit element.

Element 4: Formal and Appropriate Documentation of Evidence, Attribution of Ideas (APA Citations)

3.3 (15%)

Student demonstrates full adherence to scholarly reference requirements and adheres to APA style with respect to source attribution, references, heading and subheading logic, table of contents and lists of charts, etc. There are no APA errors.

3.13 (14.25%)

Student demonstrates full adherence to scholarly reference requirements and adheres to APA style with respect to source attribution, references, heading and subheading logic, table of contents and lists of charts, etc. There are one or two minor errors in APA style or format.

2.81 (12.75%)

Student mostly adheres to scholarly reference requirements and/or mostly adheres to APA style with respect to source attribution, references, heading and subheading logic, table of contents and lists of charts, etc. Some errors in APA format and style are evident.

2.48 (11.25%)

Student demonstrates weak or inconsistent adherence scholarly reference requirements and/or weak or inconsistent adherence to APA style with respect to source attribution, references, heading and subheading logic, table of contents and lists of charts, etc. Several errors in APA format and style are evident.

1.65 (7.5%)

Does not meet minimal standards.


Did not submit element.

Wk 5 Discussion (Due in 2 day) Urgent/.Sample_Annotated_Bibliography.doc



Sample Annotated Bibliography

Student Name Here

Walden University

Sample Annotated Bibliography

research continues to grapple with activities that best serve the purpose of fostering positive interpersonal relationships for children who struggle with autism. Children have benefited from therapy sessions that provide ongoing activities to aid autistic children’s ability to engage in healthy social interactions. However, less is known about how K–12 schools might implement programs for this group of individuals to provide additional opportunities for growth, or even if and how school programs would be of assistance in the end. There is a gap, then, in understanding the possibilities of implementing such programs in schools to foster the social and thus mental health of children with autism.

Annotated Bibliography

, M. C., Dinehart, L. H., & Winick, C. B. (2016). Child-centered play therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder. In A. A. Drewes & C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Play therapy in middle childhood (pp. 103–147). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

In this chapter, Kenny, Dinehart, and Winick provided a case study of the treatment of a 10-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ADS). Kenny et al. described the rationale and theory behind the use of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) in the treatment of a child with ASD. Specifically, children with ADS often have sociobehavioral problems that can be improved when they have a safe therapy space for expressing themselves emotionally through play that assists in their interpersonal development. The authors outlined the progress made by the patient in addressing the social and communicative impairments associated with ASD. Additionally, the authors explained the role that parents have in implementing CCPT in the patient’s treatment. Their research on the success of CCPT used qualitative data collected by observing the patient in multiple therapy sessions

CCPT follows research carried out by other theorists who have identified the role of play in supporting cognition and interpersonal relationships. This case study is relevant to the current conversation surrounding the emerging trend toward CCPT treatment in adolescents with ASD as it illustrates how CCPT can be successfully implemented in a therapeutic setting to improve the patient’s communication and socialization skills. However, Kenny et al. acknowledged that CCPT has limitations—children with ADS, who are not highly functioning and or are more severely emotionally underdeveloped, are likely not suited for this type of therapy

Kenny et al.’s explanation of this treatments’s implementation is useful for professionals in the psychology field who work with adolescents with ASD. This piece is also useful to parents of adolescents with ASD, as it discusses the role that parents can play in successfully implementing the treatment. However, more information is needed to determine if this program would be suitable as part of a K–12 school program focused on the needs of children with ASD

Stagmitti, K. (2016). Play therapy for school-age children with high-functioning autism. In A.A. Drewes and C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Play therapy in middle cildhood (pp. 237–255). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Stagmitti discussed how the Learn to Play program fosters the social and personal development of children who have high functioning autism. The program is designed as a series of play sessions carried out over time, each session aiming to help children with high functioning autism learn to engage in complex play activities with their therapist and on their own. The program is beneficial for children who are 1- to 8-years old if they are already communicating with others both nonverbally and verbally. Through this program, the therapist works with autistic children by initiating play activities, helping children direct their attention to the activity, eventually helping them begin to initiate play on their own by moving past the play narrative created by the therapist and adding new, logical steps in the play scenario themselves. The underlying rationale for the program is that there is a link between the ability of children with autism to create imaginary play scenarios that are increasingly more complex and the development of emotional well-being and social skills in these children. Study results from the program have shown that the program is successful: Children have developed personal and social skills of several increment levels in a short time. While Stagmitti provided evidence that the Learn to Play program was successful, she also acknowledged that more research was needed to fully understand the long-term benefits of the program.

Stagmitti offered an insightful overview of the program; however, her discussion was focused on children identified as having high-functioning autism, and, therefore, it is not clear if and how this program works for those not identified as high-functioning. Additionally, Stagmitti noted that the program is already initiated in some schools but did not provide discussion on whether there were differences or similarities in the success of this program in that setting.

Although Stagmitti’s overview of the Learn to Play program was helpful for understanding the possibility for this program to be a supplementary addition in the K–12 school system, more research is needed to understand exactly how the program might be implemented, the benefits of implementation, and the drawbacks. Without this additional information, it would be difficult for a researcher to use Stigmitti’s research as a basis for changes in other programs. However, it does provide useful context and ideas that researchers can use to develop additional research programs.

Wimpory, D. C., & Nash, S. (1999). Musical interaction therapy–Therapeutic play for children with autism. Child Language and Teaching Therapy, 15(1), 17–28. doi:10.1037/14776-014

Wimpory and Nash provided a case study for implementing music interaction therapy as part of play therapy aimed at cultivating communication skills in infants with ASD. The researchers based their argument on films taken of play-based therapy sessions that introduced music interaction therapy. To assess the success of music play, Wimpory and Nash filmed the follow-up play-based interaction between the parent and the child. The follow-up interactions revealed that 20 months after the introduction of music play, the patient developed prolonged playful interaction with both the psychologist and the parent. The follow-up films also revealed that children initiated spontaneously pretend play during these later sessions. After the introduction of music, the patient began to develop appropriate language skills.

Since the publication date for this case study is 1999, the results are dated. Although this technique is useful, emerging research in the field has undoubtedly changed in the time since the article was published. Wimpory and Nash wrote this article for a specific audience, including psychologists and researchers working with infants diagnosed with ASD. This focus also means that other researchers beyond these fields may not find the researcher’s findings applicable.

This research is useful to those looking for background information on the implementation of music into play-based therapy in infants with ASD. Wimpory and Nash presented a basis for this technique and outlined its initial development. Thus, this case study can be useful in further trials when paired with more recent research.

�The format of an annotated bibliography can change depending on the assignment and instructor preference, but the typical format for an annotated bibliography in academic writing is a list of reference entries with each entry followed by an annotation (hence the name, “annotated bibliography”).

However, APA does not have specific rules or guidelines for annotated bibliographies, so be sure to ask your instructor for any course-specific requirements that may vary from the general format.

�An introduction is a helpful addition to your annotated bibliography to tell your reader (a) your topic and focus for your research and (b) the general context of your topic.

Although your assignment instructions may not explicitly ask for an introduction, your instructor might expect you to include one. If you are not sure, be sure to ask your instructor.

�Use a Level 1 heading titled “Annotated Bibliography” or any other wording your instructor has given you to indicate to your reader that the annotations will go next and separate this section from the introduction paragraph above.

�Format your reference entries per APA, as well as follow APA style when writing your paragraphs. However, as mentioned above, this is the extent of the formatting requirements APA has for annotated bibliographies.

The content of the paragraphs and how many paragraphs you include in each annotation follows academic writing conventions, your assignment guidelines, and your instructor preferences.

�This first paragraph of the annotation summarizes the source. It outlines the main findings and primary methods of the study.

�This second paragraph of the annotation analyzes the source. It explains the benefits of the source but also the limitations.

�This third paragraph of the annotation applies the source. It explains how the source’s ideas, research, and information can be applied to other contexts.

In general, annotated bibliographies should avoid referring to the first or second person (I, me, my, we, our, you, and us). Instead, students should aim to be objective and remove themselves from annotations. However, there may be some exceptions to this guideline. Check with your instructor if you are unsure about whether he/she will allow you to use “I” in your annotated bibliography.

Wk 5 Discussion (Due in 2 day) Urgent/An integrative theory of strategic quality.pdf

Wk 5 Discussion (Due in 2 day) Urgent/Applying strategic management theories.pdf

Developing a typology

Jesper Rosenberg Hansen
and Ewan Ferlie

Jesper Rosenberg Hansen
Department of Economics and Business
University of Aarhus

Department of Political Science and Government
University of Aarhus
E-mail: [email protected]

Ewan Ferlie
Department of Management
King’s College London
E-mail: [email protected]


This article discusses the utility of two dif-
ferent strategic management theories in dif-
ferent types of public organizations including
contemporary New Public Management-
based public organizations, namely Porter’s
strategic positioning model and the
resource-based view of strategy. We argue
that possibilities for applying these theories
vary depending on the type of public organi-
zations involved, and are less appropriate in
traditional settings but more relevant in
autonomized and market-like service-delivery
organizations. We further propose that their
increased applicability depends on three spe-
cific conditions: the degree of administrative
autonomy, performance-based budgeting
and market-like competition. We give empiri-
cal examples drawn from public services in
the UK and Denmark. We call for more
exploration of these (and other) strategic
management approaches within contempor-
ary public services organisations but also
more exploration of the limitations of these

Key words
Strategic management, NPM, typology

Public Management Review, 2016

Vol. 18, No. 1, 1–19, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2014.957339

© 2014 Taylor & Francis


The public sector in many countries has recently undergone many changes through
sustained reform initiatives. While countries vary in their reform trajectory (Pollitt and
Bouckhart 2011), New Public Management (NPM) reforms have been a significant
influence in various jurisdictions since the 1980s (Hood 1991, 1995). The NPM wave
introduced new economic perspectives (e.g. quasi-markets, transaction cost economics
and agency theory) and generic management theory (e.g. firm-like corporate govern-
ance) within public organizations (Hood 1991). Changes to more business-like organi-
zational forms are now well explored in a substantial literature on NPM reforming
(Hood 1991; Ferlie et al. 1996; see Dunleavy et al. 2005 for a critical treatment)
though there are major variations of the NPM impact across countries and between
sector areas within countries (Pollitt and Bouckaert 2011).
The established public management literature (Perry and Rainey 1988; Rainey and Chun

2005; Boyne 2002) also explores the nature of strategic management in public organizations
and private companies (Nutt and Backoff 1993; Moore 2000; Rainey 2009), but typically
assumes significant differences (Allison, [1980] 2004; Bozeman 1987) due to more complex
and ambiguous goals in the public sector, and because the decision-making process is there
more open and political, given multiple stakeholders (Rainey 2009). However, this
established literature does not consider the effects of NPM reforms in making public
services organizations less distinctive from the private sector firm (see Dunleavy and
Hood 1994). It is only recently that strategic management has received attention within
the public administration literature (Ferlie 2003; Johanson 2009) and the field is still
developing. Even so, strategic management is argued by some authors to be increasingly
important for shaping the performance of public organizations (Andrews et al. 2012).
Key macro-level shifts within the NPM include (i) Autonomized Agencies: NPM

reforms break up large vertically integrated public bureaucracies into smaller and
more ‘manageable’ service-delivery-orientated subunits such as UK executive agencies
(Pollitt et al. 2004). The goal is to create autonomous public organizations (Pollitt
et al. 2004) with well-defined, high volume and narrow tasks. Such agencies are
‘accorded greater operational decentralization’ with more ‘strategic space’ in which
to operate. (ii) Quasi-Markets and Quasi-Firms: The old line management hierarchy
fragments into distinct groupings of commissioners and providers which link through
a contract. On the provider side, quasi-markets produce ‘quasi-firms’ (Ferlie 2003)
which try to secure competitive advantage and win contracts. They may become less
producer-dominated and more customer-focused. (iii) Sectoral Blurring and Public–Private
Hybrids. NPM reforms increase sectoral blurring and create public–private hybrids.
Consortia (e.g. large infrastructure projects) bring together public agencies and private
firms. Executive agencies may undergo progressive privatization, with the role of
private shareholders increasing over time. Organizations nominally remaining in the
public sector may increase income generated through the market and become less

2 Public Management Review

reliant on public funding. (iv) Strengthened Corporate Core: NPM organizations seek to
develop more steering from the corporate core. Typical shifts include assertive senior
management, importing personnel from the private sector; a smaller and more strategic
board with empowered non-executives, often with a business background; and aligning
managerial and professional domains through a linking group of public services profes-
sionals with part-time managerial roles as ‘hybrids’ (Ferlie et al. 1996).
Our main goal here is to consider whether and why certain models of strategic

management can be used in different types of public organizations. So we will first of all
consider the conditions under which generic strategic management models become more
applicable to specific types of public organizations, notably those that are NPM-oriented.
Our main argument is that where there are three NPM-correlated conditions: a high degree
of (i) administrative autonomy, (ii) performance-based budgets and (iii) market-like con-
ditions then receptivity to conventional models of strategic management increases.
Second, we will examine two influential strategic management theories found in

business organizations (Spanos and Lioukas 2001). One is Porter’s strategic positioning
(Porter; 1980, 1985, 1996) model which focuses on choice of strategy and position in
the market, so as to exploit market imperfections. The other is the resource-based view
(RBV) of strategy (Barney 1991, 1995; Peteraf and Barney 2003) which focuses on
developing and exploiting the organization’s resources. While these theories are widely
used in private companies, the literature on strategic management in public organiza-
tions does not (yet) pay much attention. More public-management-based literature
focuses on other aspects of strategic management, for example, on strategic processes
(Bryson 2004) or on Miles and Snow’s classic typology (e.g. Andrews et al. 2009;
Meier et al. 2007) – though Porter (Vining 2011) and RBV (Walshe, Harvey and Jas,
2010; Piening forthcoming) have received more attention recently. We suggest there
are further possibilities for applying these theories in public services organizations which
rate highly on our three core dimensions.
Some examples are given from public organizations in the core health and education

sectors in two countries with experience of major NPM reforms in large parts of their
public sector: the UK (Hood 1991, 1995; Ferlie et al. 1996) and Denmark (Hansen
2011). We recognize that other jurisdictions may be on non-NPM-based tracks of
public services reform (Pollitt and Bouckaert 2011) and will consider these broader
issues in the concluding discussion. The concluding discussion also outlines suggestions
for future research in what we consider as a growing field.


We argue that the possibilities for using strategic management models in public
organizations depend on their core features. In this section, we generate a continuum

Hansen & Ferlie: Strategic management in NPM-based organizations 3

to help understand such differences and suggest a classification scheme which argues
that three dimensions: the degree of administrative autonomy, performance-based
budgeting and market-like competition all influence such possibilities.

Degree of administrative autonomy

The first dimension is the organization’s degree of administrative autonomy. A tradi-
tional distinction often drawn is between economic and administrative autonomy. In the
former, the organization has economic freedom, often in a competitive situation
(Chubb and Moe 1988). Here, we focus on administrative autonomy which sets the
boundaries for strategic action. In the private sector strategic management literature,
autonomy is not seen as a big issue – probably because it is expected that companies
have autonomy to act. However, public organizations can be restricted by their
mandate (Bryson 2004). Politicians decide the organization’s degree of autonomy,
traditionally highlighted as a constraint on strategy in public management (Ring and
Perry 1985). Yet in many countries, politicians have recently expanded the scope of
autonomy for public organizations to reach their goals (Pollitt and Bouckaert 2011;
Vining 2011) and autonomy maximization may also be a managerial objective. One
core NPM policy is to construct semi-autonomous executive agencies (Pollitt et al.
2004) assuming they perform better in the operational domain than more traditional,
highly restricted public organizations (we develop this point below).

Degree of performance-based budgets

Two widely used typologies of public organizations are Wilson (1989) and Dunleavy
(1991). Wilson distinguishes between types of public organizations using two criteria:
how observable is output and outcome. Dunleavy (1991) distinguishes between public
organizations based on their budgeting. These two typologies focus on two fundamental
aspects of public agency budgeting: Wilson focuses on output and outcome, which is a
performance-oriented framework, and categorizes public organizations according to
how their performance can be observed. Dunleavy focuses on the public organization’s
budget as the basis for what the organization can achieve. This article’s classification
schema combines these two variables and focuses on the degree of performance-based
While performance measurement has been used for different purposes, the focus

here is on performance measurement techniques which make performance-based
budgets (Jordan and Hackbart 1999) possible. The policy choice is whether public
services organizations have fixed budgets with no relation to performance, or at the
other extreme, budgets based solely on performance (activity-based budgets) or

4 Public Management Review

something in between. This dimension relates to the distinction between input- and
output-based budgets where the trend with NPM is towards more output-based
budgets (Rubin and Kelly 2005). Problems can occur with performance-based budget-
ing given a tendency to focus on aspects that are measured while forgetting those not
measured. Furthermore, many public tasks remain difficult to measure (Wilson 1989).
Therefore, the argument is not that we need a decrease or increase in performance-
based budgets, but rather that this continuum influences the possibilities for applying
strategic management. The performance-based budget form increases the importance of
strategic management because organizations’ survival to a larger extent now depends on
their performance. This is not to say that organizations with fixed budgets will not use
some strategic management techniques to help allocate resources, but rather that the
scope and scale of such analysis is likely to increase along with performance-based

Degree of market-like competition

Perry and Rainey’s influential typology (1988) includes three criteria: ownership
(public/private), funding (public/private) and social control (polyarchy/market). This
typology is clear, but its primary focus is on the transitional area between public
organizations and private companies. Much recent work on public management has
studied organizations which are a cross between public and private sectors (Jørgensen
1999). As organizations still legally in the public sector are allowed to increase their
private and public income flows, they may too become more like hybrids and operate in
more market-like conditions.
The last dimension in our continuum is therefore the degree of market-like competi-

tion. The question is whether control is primarily political or performed via market-like
conditions either after privatization, increased private income flows or through ‘strong’
quasi-markets. This continuum suggests differential market-like conditions, for
instance, the degree of competition facing a public organization. One indicator of
market-like competition is how much it threatens organizational survival. Given high
competition, a failing public organization may experience market failure and even be
forced to close. We develop this point further below.

The overall classification schema

The first dimension explores how much freedom an organization has in achieving its
mission; the second plots the extent to which the organization receives funding for
achieving the mission and whether it varies with performance; and the third dimension
concerns whether an organization competes with others in achieving its mission. Based

Hansen & Ferlie: Strategic management in NPM-based organizations 5

on this classification schema (see Figure 1), there are two extreme types of public
organizations where all three dimensions are either low or high. The first category
contains the classical bureaus with highly restricted tasks of authority (like issuing
passports or building licenses). Traditionally these traditional bureaus have fixed
budgets regardless of performance and competition. On the other side of the spectrum
lie private-like and NPM-inspired agencies (like some public schools, where the
children have a free choice of school and which are funded according to the number
of students) with greater scope of action and fewer restrictions; they have performance-
based budgets, work in equal competition with private companies, and close if they
cannot compete. In Figure 1, we have for simplicity shown how we on one hand still
have traditional public organizations and on the other have the NPM organizations.
However, we argue that due to various NPM changes apparent in different areas (but
not all), we may have a variety of different types of public organizations that are at
different places at these three different dimensions.
It is therefore important to emphasize that these different dimensions should not be

treated as either high or low degree (binary dichotomy), but that there are different
levels in what are continua. Empirically, we will also find that different organizations
can be placed on different levels in these continua. Our theoretical argument is that
overall, the opportunity for strategic management models is highest: (i) when there is
greater freedom to act, because if everything is regulated there is less room for strategic
management; (ii) when there is much performance-based budgeting, strategic manage-
ment approaches are more applicable, because their budget (and potential survival) are
more dependent on performance; and (iii) when there are market-like conditions,
because this threatens the survival of the organizations and increases the need for
strategy. We expect that these conditions for strategic management are likely where
there are strong NPM reforms.
We now go on to explore the possible utility of two major models of strategic

management for public agencies which display strong evidence of these three core

Figure 1: Differences between public organizations

6 Public Management Review


The strategic positioning model explores how to choose a clear strategy and position in an
industry to exploit market imperfections (Porter 1980, 1985, 1996). Given Porter is a
prolific writer, this article concentrates on his core concepts of strategic positioning, generic
strategies, the five forces model (Porter 1980) and value chain analysis (Porter 1985).
Porter’s main ideas come from the discipline of industrial organization (Bain 1959) –

a subfield of neoclassic economics using concepts of economics of scale and scope. So
the unit of analysis is the whole group of organizations (the industry). Porter’s work on
strategic positioning asks: how can the organization best position itself in the industry to
achieve competitive advantage? The key idea is that the organization, compared to
competitors, constructs an advantage from which it can make a sustained profit. A
question for Porter is how the organization can use market imperfections to appropriate
the total value created. The way to achieve competitive advantage is through a clear
strategy where only a small number of generic strategies are viable. The low cost
strategy focuses on achieving cost advantage. The differentiation strategy focuses on
offering different products or services that customers are willing to pay for (Porter
1980) in return for high quality. An organization should choose one clear strategy;
otherwise it will be ‘stuck in the middle’ (Porter 1980).
The well-known five forces model (Porter 1980) analyses the attractiveness of

industries through five different forces. First the attractiveness depends on the bargain-
ing power of suppliers and bargaining power of buyers. The more power each have, the
less attractive the industry. The threat of new entrants, the threat of substitutes and the
industry competitors and their degree of rivalry also lessen industry attractiveness.
Based on this analysis, the firm should choose which industry to be in and what position
(generic strategy) to hold. However, it can use the model to make its own industry
more attractive, by creating entry barriers for new entrants.
The strategic positioning model explores the effect of a given strategy across the

organization. This is captured in the value chain model (Porter 1985) which focuses on
all activities (primary and support) required to bring the product or service to end
customers and users. The implication is that the chosen strategy should be applied
throughout the chain.
So important concepts behind the strategic positioning model are as follows: the

theory has an outside-in focus on strategy by which the strategy is shaped by the
external environment (especially the industry). Moreover, the strategy is concerned
with making choices (or trade offs) within the industry (Porter 1996). It also empha-
sizes ‘fit’ (Porter 1996) – the idea that the strategy adopted should fit the organizational
and the market context.
Can a Porterian strategic positioning approach be applied in NPM rich public

organizations? Strategic positioning has received little attention in the strategic manage-
ment literature in public organizations (but for an exception, see Vining 2011). Few

Hansen & Ferlie: Strategic management in NPM-based organizations 7

papers discuss strategic positioning (Boyne and Walker 2004) and there are few
empirical studies. Why might this be the case? Bryson and Roering (1987) suggest it
is difficult for public organizations to know what industries they are in and which forces
are influential. Furthermore, a strategic positioning perspective focuses on competition,
while traditional public organizations focus on collaboration (Bryson and Roering
We explore these arguments further here. The overall goal of using a strategic

positioning approach is to gain an advantage over competitors and to maximize profit.
In traditional public organizations, a problem is the appropriation of value by using
market imperfections instead of creating value or ensuring overall efficiency is seen as
inappropriate. Public organizations also traditionally have multiple stakeholders to serve
within a specific mandate and not a focus on profit for shareholders (Bryson 2004).
Second, a strategic positioning perspective holds assumptions that do not match a

traditional public organization, because it focuses on the choices of customers or what
markets to serve and which generic strategy to apply. For public organizations, this
freedom of choice is often not possible, given their mandate to fulfil. Public organiza-
tions are often not free to choose their markets or customers (e.g. prisons). They are
tied to a specific ‘market’ and their customers are the citizens. The concept of generic
strategies is difficult to apply in traditional public organizations as they cannot choose
customers willing to pay extra. While Porter’s focus on the external environment can
be an important aspect of strategic management in public organizations, we suggest the
overall focus should be on value creation for all relevant stakeholders.
Some parts of Porter’s theory can be applied in traditional public organizations –

especially the value chain concept (Bryson 2004) which seeks to ensure alignment
between the various value creating activities. And the concept of environmental fit is
equally important in public organizations and private companies.
However, our overall analysis suggests that there are also difficulties in applying a

strategic positioning perspective in traditional public organizations. Major reservations
come from its focus on competition and appropriating of value. However, as formerly
argued, there are now major differences between different types of public
The possibilities for application of Porter’s model are best when all three NPM style

dimensions are high: autonomy, market-like conditions and performance-based budget-
ing. Autonomy levels should be high because one fundamental contention is that the
organizations can choose (Porter 1996) their strategy or even their industry. Market-
like conditions should be high because the goal is to achieve a competitive advantage
(Porter 1980). This indicates that the strategic positioning model assumes market-like
conditions, even of an imperfect nature. Finally, the goal of strategic positioning is to
perform better than competitors (to earn more profit) and this assumes that the
budgetary funding should be performance-based. In the following section, we give
two empirical examples.

8 Public Management Review

Empirical examples of strategic positioning

Upper secondary schools from Denmark
Danish upper secondary schools are an example of public organizations where strategic
positioning concepts might be applied as they have moved in an NPM direction
following the Danish Structural Reform (Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health
2004). First, upper secondary schools have more autonomy because they are now self-
governing with their own boards. They are responsible for more tasks: they decide
which study directions to offer the students, and in the long run also decide their
capacity for students. Furthermore, their budgets have changed from fixed budgets to
taximeter financing. So now they budget according to the number of students who pass
an exam. This means they have to compete against other schools. Previously upper
secondary schools were assured a certain number of students because they were
allocated to them by a public committee.
Although the upper secondary schools still are publicly owned, funded and limited by

their mandate, a strategic positioning model can be applied, because each school now
has a choice of how to position itself in the ‘industry’ of upper secondary schools: for
example, they can differentiate themselves by offering particular study directions, or
even merge with business colleges or other upper secondary schools. Furthermore, they
compete with other upper secondary schools, not to appropriate profit, but for the
number of students which influences their budget. So even though the schools are not
profit-oriented, they focus on appropriation of students. Several factors could prevent a
school from applying a strategic positioning model: different institutional factors (Scott
2007) including path dependency. Here, the school leaders (the principals) have, for
years, primarily focused on pedagogical leadership and associated professional norms
which still constrain the application of strategic management theories in the public
sector, but importantly the schools can potentially apply strategic positioning thinking
because their market situation has changed. A longitudinal case study has though
showed that these schools are focusing more on competitive issues including issues
like the schools profile and attracting students after the Structural Reform (Hansen and
Jacobsen 2013). Yet, the investigated schools still keep their high level of cooperation
between schools though this may potentially be challenged in the future when the
number of students is expected to go down due to smaller year groups coming through
(Hansen and Jacobsen 2013). Moreover, a broad survey of these schools shows
increased use of strategic management tools, including competitively oriented tools
(like analysis of competitors and marketing plans), after the reform (Hansen 2011).

Strategy in the developing quasi-market in English higher education
The policy of the UK coalition government (elected in 2010) has accelerated the drift
away from a planned system to a quasi-market in English higher education (to a greater
extent than in the Thatcher era of the 1980s and 1990s). Themes of competitive

Hansen & Ferlie: Strategic management in NPM-based organizations 9

advantage have already been addressed sporadically in the UK higher education
literature (Lynch and Baines 2004, adopt an RBV perspective), but interest is now
likely to intensify. More private firms and not-for-profit organizations have been given
degree awarding powers and encouraged to enter the higher education market,
particularly in vocationally orientated subjects such as Law or Business Studies (although
we presently lack a case of market exit by a failed public provider).
Undergraduate fee levels have been increased substantially (leading to more con-

sumer pressure) to a maximum of £9000 a year and old caps on numbers of well-
performing students allocated to institutions by the central planning body have been
removed to create stronger market forces. Institutions also have the freedom to charge
less than the maximum allowed if they choose to (that is, focus on cost leadership),
although few have yet done so (perhaps mindful of consequent reputational damage).
Overseas and postgraduate student markets have been growing and are largely deregu-
lated (e.g. MBAs). Universities face explicit performance pressures both in the market-
place for students’ fee income and in research (where public funding follows an explicit
assessment of departmental performance).
Universities therefore face strategic positioning decisions within the developing

Higher Education marketplace. Do they move to a cost leadership position, and
undercut their competitors, with the danger of being seen as a low quality brand?
Or do they differentiate themselves on quality grounds and charge premium fees? Will
the middle ranking institutions (‘the squeezed middle’) be seriously affected as they do
not have a coherent overall strategy as Porter would predict)?
These are still early days and the full effects of new market level forces are still to

work through, but may be expected to force higher education institutions to make
more explicit positioning decisions. Longitudinal case studies of the strategic behaviour
and positioning of exemplar Higher Education Institutions would be of great interest.
Next, we turn to the RBV model of strategy to analyse its application in both

traditional organizations and NPM rich public organizations.


The literature on RBV is more fragmented than on strategic positioning but here the
organization’s internal resources are distinctively seen as the main sources of compe-
titive advantage. The literature has grown rapidly since the early work of Wernerfelt
(1984), Prahalad and Hamel (1990), Barney (1991) on organizational resources, core
competences and capabilities. We here examine Barney’s influential version of RBV
(Newbert 2007) and the more recent but influential variant of RBV, the dynamic
capabilities perspective (Teece, Pisano, and Shuen 1997).
The RBV model assumes that firms are heterogeneous in their resources which are

also not perfectly mobile (Barney 1991). An RBV strategy seeks to gain a competitive

10 Public Management Review

advantage by implementing a value creating strategy not simultaneously being imple-
mented by other competitors which can also be sustained as competitors cannot
duplicate it readily (Barney 1991). The fundamental strategy is to exploit and develop
the organization’s heterogeneous resources to gain a sustained competitive advantage.
An important question is then, what characterizes these resources? Here Barney
introduces the influential valuable, rare, inimitable, and non-substitutable (VRIN)
framework (Barney 1991), later changed to valuable, rare, inimitable, and organiza-
tional (VRIO) (Barney 1995). In summary, resources in these frameworks need to be
VRIN and VRIO to produce competitive advantage.
Unlike Porterian analysis, RBV has an inside-out perspective. The main focus is on

efficiency in relation to use the organization’s internal resources to gain competitive
advantage (Teece, Pisano, and Shuen 1997) and value creation, which Peteraf and
Barney saw as a key concept in developing the RBV concept (Peteraf and Barney 2003).
A more dynamic version of RBV focuses on the impact of the rapid and unpredict-

able external and internal changes many organizations now experience (Teece, Pisano,
and Shuen 1997; Eisenhardt and Martin 2000), leading to the need to develop ‘dynamic
capabilities’. These dynamic capabilities often consist of simple and experimental
processes which use knowledge and knowhow in new ways to solve complex issues
through adapting the firm to the volatile environment (Eisenhardt and Martin 2000):
some examples are strategic decision-making processes and product development
routines. The focus is not on static resources but instead on integrating, building and
reconfiguring resources and competences to deal with major and rapid changes in the
environment (Eisenhardt and Martin 2000) over time.
More attention has been given to RBV in public organizations than to Porter’s

strategic positioning model. Some empirical investigations, for instance, Carmeli and
Tishler (2004), show a positive relation between resources (like managerial capabilities
and human capital) and the performance of public organizations. Some other studies
(Bryson, Ackermann, and Eden 2007; Pablo et al. 2007) explore how to use RBV in
public organizations. The RBV perspective can also illuminate problematic organiza-
tional behaviours: so Harvey et al. (2010) use this perspective to examine ‘non-
learning’ processes by failing UK public organizations which failed to sense externally
available information about poor performance levels.
Are there theoretical limits to applying RBV in public organizations? RBV addresses

ways to gain profit, achieve a competitive advantage and create strategies that cannot be
imitated by others, all seen as problematic in traditional public organizations. However,
RBV focuses on value creation – how to use and develop resources to create value. It is
different from and broader than the strategic positioning model, which focuses on how
much value the shareholder can earn in profit.
Peteraf and Barney (2003) see RBV suitable for other types of organizations than

private companies. While they point to implications for non-profit organizations, the
argument also holds for public organizations. Much RBV literature focuses on the goal

Hansen & Ferlie: Strategic management in NPM-based organizations 11

of efficiency (Teece, Pisano, and Shuen 1997), which is also relevant in traditional
public organizations where it is important to use resources efficiently. RBV, unlike
Porter, focuses on becoming better than competitors at implementing value creating
strategies by exploiting resources optimally. This is more like Ricardian rent, achieved
by owning a valuable resource (Mahoney and Pandian 1992). The difference between
strategic positioning and RBV has been characterized as an account of strategizing versus
economizing where strategizing deals with market power and economizing promotes
efficiency (Teece, Pisano, and Shuen 1997).
Within the RBV literature, the usual way to distinguish resources which create value

and efficiency is through the VRIO framework (Barney 1995). The question is whether
this framework primarily focuses on value creation and efficiency or on value appro-
priation. On the one hand, the VRIO framework argues that resources should be
valuable, which is also a relevant focus in all public organizations. On the other hand,
the concept that resources need to be rare and inimitable is not necessarily a suitable
characteristic in traditional public organizations. The rareness criterion suggests that
few other organizations have the resources. To be inimitable in RBV, it is important for
the organization to have the resources for itself, to gain advantage over other organiza-
tions. However, in traditional public organizations it is not the ultimate goal to control
resources that others do not have or cannot get. The goal is rather to fulfil the
organization’s mandate and mission, perhaps by sharing resources and letting other
organizations imitate them through collaboration. Finally, it is also of key importance in
public organizations that they are organized (in relation to structure, control and
compensation systems, etc.) to fully exploit resources.
The dynamic capability view fits well with the current volatile environment which

many reformed public organizations experience. They build and reconfigure internal
resources and competences which are then integrated with other organizations within
more partnerships and collaborations. Often they are connected with an experimental
search where the outcome is often unpredictable. With few studies of dynamic
capabilities in public organizations (Pablo et al. 2007; Piening forthcoming) as yet,
this research field may grow rapidly.
Our theoretical conclusion in relation to RBV in traditional public organizations is

that it is reasonable to analyse the organization’s heterogeneous resources and focus on
these resources being valuable and organized to create value and efficiency. However,
the RBV focus on keeping (isolating) the resources for the organizations itself is not
compatible with traditional public organizations. It can be contrary to value creation –
not for the organization – but for the wider set of legitimate stakeholders. Yet as some
public organizations have changed to being quasi-market organizations, they now use
market-like logics with a greater focus on competitive advantage, competitors, quasi-
profit, etc. Finally, the concept of dynamic capabilities seems to match conditions in
many current public organizations that have to adapt to new situations and require-
ments rapidly while going through unpredictable change themselves.

12 Public Management Review

Going back to the three dimensions proposed earlier, RBV also requires some degree
of autonomy for public sector organizations, although less than strategic positioning,
because it is not about choosing, but more about creating value and efficiency (Peteraf
and Barney 2003). However, performance-based budgets may be needed to support
RBV to indicate success in value creation and efficiency more clearly. Finally, the
degree of market-like conditions needed depends on which aspects of RBV are in focus:
if the focus is on value creation and efficiency there is not necessarily a need for the
market-like condition, but if the focus is on competitive advantage and isolation of
resources then the market-like condition is a fundamental prerequisite. In the following
section, we give two examples of the possible use of RBV perspectives within the
current public services settings.

Empirical examples of RBV

English academic health sciences centres
RBV theories have strong relevance for knowledge-based organizations where the
collective possession of and ability to mobilize scarce and valuable knowledge sustains
competitive advantage. A ‘knowledge mobilization’ perspective (Cooksey 2006; Dept
of Health) has become increasingly evident in English health policy, aimed at shortening
the ‘bench to bedside’ cycle of fundamental research. Such research (e.g. increasing the
number of patients enrolled in Randomized Control Trials) has been expanding,
reflecting the considerable and so far protected budget (approx. £1 b) of the
National Institute of Health Research. Such research is increasingly seen as having an
effect on wealth improvement (e.g. the biopharma and life sciences industries) as well
as the conventional goal of health improvement (Department of Health 2011). The
ability to manage such research-based knowledge has thus become an important policy
and organizational issue.
A recent review of RBV literature in UK health care (Crilly et al. 2013) concluded

that this perspective can usefully be applied to health care, especially large and
specialized teaching hospitals, with a strong fundamental clinical research base which
they wish to transfer into clinical practice more rapidly. Following the American model
(e.g. Johns Hopkins), the UK has recently designated and accredited six Academic
Health Sciences Centres (AHSCs) within large centres of clinical and research as well as
service excellence. They are supposed to accelerate the diffusion of the results of basic
clinical research into local health care services but need to develop a new organizational
architecture to enable them to achieve this goal (Fischer et al. 2013) so they can link
traditionally distinct academic and service communities of practice.
The AHSCs are concentrated in London where there are three such AHSCs. While there

is no overt market-based competition between them, there may well be reputational
competition to attract the best researchers in a tight international labour market (where
AHSC status is reputational advantage). From an RBV perspective, these organizations’

Hansen & Ferlie: Strategic management in NPM-based organizations 13

collective competence in building an internationally outstanding research base in their key
research areas and then mobilizing it effectively so that it translates rapidly into enhanced
clinical practice will be fundamental to their long-term success. Should they fail to develop
and demonstrate such an organizational capability, their time-limited accreditation may not
be renewed by the centre so they face strong incentives to develop such capabilities by, for
example, building an institutional architecture which links traditionally separate academic
and clinical groupings and using organizational development skills and interventions (Fischer
et al. 2013) to cross traditional internal boundaries.

A Danish university hospital and RBV
Another example is Rigshospitalet, one of the largest and most specialized hospitals in
Denmark. While this hospital’s environment is characterized by little competition given
it is a university hospital, though there is a strong competition for specialties.
Generally, there is less competition for very specialized tasks while local private
hospitals primarily compete for simpler and more routine tasks. The hospital budgeting
is still to a large degree activity and to some degree performance-based due to Danish
DRG (diagnosis-related group) system which has facilitated activity-based payment
(Magnussen, Vrangbæk, and Saltman 2009). Finally, Rigshospitalet, like other univer-
sity hospitals, has high administrative autonomy compared to other Danish hospitals.
Overall, these characteristics imply that the five forces model is difficult to apply as
market-like competition is not a major force, though a policy promoting the free choice
of hospital has introduced some competition. However, the hospital still needs to
ensure a reasonable budget (‘profit’) through the activity-based DRG system, though
they can only keep some of the efficiency gains. This baseline also reduces the
competition when the hospital reaches it.
Instead the RBV of strategy could be useful, given its focus on the internal side of

strategy and efficiency. So the hospital’s focus on becoming the best through specializa-
tion by using its strong science base echoes the RBV idea of rare and valuable resources.
Also the relevance of ‘organizing’ is which comes from the dynamic capability part of
the RBV literature is closely related to such a knowledge intensive organization that
needs to be at the forefront of effective knowledge mobilization.
While the competition for patients is not expected to be very strong in these

research intensive hospitals, the competition at minor hospital may be extremely fierce
and actually for these minor hospitals may be so hard that how they deal with this
competition may influence their organizational survival. In these cases we would expect
that strategic management theories like strategic positioning could be very relevant as
the hospital really has to consider where to be in the market and how and which
patients to attract. This emphasizes our key point that the applicability of strategic
management in public sector depends on both the type of organization and type of
strategic management theory.

14 Public Management Review


The overall argument developed here is that two generic models of strategy (Porter’s
strategic positioning model and also RBV) can fruitfully be applied (albeit still with
care) to the study of the strategic behaviour of NPM rich organizations. We examined
the two concrete cases of the UK and Denmark, giving examples from their health and
education sectors. We further argued that usefulness of these generic strategic manage-
ment theories depends on three key dimensions, namely the higher the degree of (i)
administrative autonomy, (ii) performance-based budgets and (iii) market-like condi-
tions found in public services organizations, the more likely it is that generic strategic
management models can usefully be applied.
While we do not here have space to develop the argument fully, one objection to

our analysis may be that the NPM era is dated and has now been succeeded by post-
NPM models of New Public Governance (NPG; Newman 2001; Osborne 2009), for
example, in the New Labour period in the UK or of Digital Era Governance (Dunleavy
et al. 2005). However, we note that some recent work suggests that NPM logic
remains embedded in high NPM jurisdictions such as New Zealand (Lodge and Gill
2011) and UK health care (Trenholm and Ferlie 2013), even if sometimes dysfunction-
ally so. So the claim of a clear transition to post-NPM forms of organizing remains
highly contested. Moreover, our argument is not necessarily restricted to NPM-
oriented organizations (although it is in this first paper) as we propose that the use of
different strategic management theories depend on type of public organization and that
non-NPM-based public services organizations might also conceivably be open to alter-
native forms of strategy (e.g. cooperative strategy).

Future research agenda

More empirical studies (quantitative as well as qualitative) applying a greater range of
strategic management theories (usefully collated in Mintzberg, Ahlstrand, and Lampel
2009; also Ferlie and Ongaro 2015) in public organizations are needed which go beyond
the present initial but limited focus on Porter and RBV. Substantively, the possible
effects of alternative NPG reforms need to be investigated, in particular whether they
encourage the development of alternative cooperative or network-based forms of
In addition, case studies of public services organizations which score highly on all

three of our dimensions would be of interest: how do they behave strategically in
practice? Case studies of public services organizations which have explicitly sought to
apply RBV (Casebeer et al. 2010) or Porterian strategic models (perhaps in health care,
given his recent book on that sector, Porter and Teisberg 2006) would be helpful.
Such patterns of strategy making may well vary from one jurisdiction to another

internationally, depending on their receptiveness to NPM, NPG or other reforms, so an

Hansen & Ferlie: Strategic management in NPM-based organizations 15

international and comparative perspective is clearly needed. This may also lead to the
development of more critical studies of the impact of these different types of reforms.
So NPM reforms making more competitive type of strategy (like Porter’s strategic
positioning model) more useful in specific types of organizations may also have negative
impact on the collaboration between different public services organizations. Even
though these theories may be more applicable in these NPM-based organizations, it is
important to notice that they still have some public organizations’ characteristics
making them responsible for fulfilling their declared mandate and also responsible to
the public and their representatives. So profit is still not their main goal (Moore 2000).
Finally, future work should integrate the development of these perspectives, con-

sidering their effects on the performance – both anticipated and un-anticipated (we
realize definitions may not be simple and may require further methodological work) of
the public organizations concerned (see earlier work by Andrews et al. 2009, 2012).

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  • Abstract
    • Degree of administrative autonomy
    • Degree of performance-based budgets
    • Degree of market-like competition
    • The overall classification schema
    • Empirical examples of strategic positioning
      • Upper secondary schools from Denmark
      • Strategy in the developing quasi-market in English higher education
    • Empirical examples of RBV
      • English academic health sciences centres
      • A Danish university hospital and RBV
    • Future research agenda
  • References

Wk 5 Discussion (Due in 2 day) Urgent/The dual-continuum approach.docx

Christen, C. T., & Lovaas, S. R. (2022). The dual-continuum approach: An extension of the contingency theory of Strategic Conflict Management. Public Relations Review, 48(1), 102145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2021.102145


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